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We have investigated the phenotypic and genotypic susceptibility of 14 HIV-1 strains isolated from individuals failing HAART therapy to protease inhibitors (PI). Proviral and plasma viral pol gene fragment were amplified, sequenced and subtyped. Nine samples clustered with protease subtype B reference strains and the remaining samples were classified as(More)
Development of drug resistance is the inevitable consequence of incomplete suppression of virus plasma levels in HIV-1-infected patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy. Resistance mutations previously characterized have been found in B subtype viruses of developed countries. Moreover, mutation profiles for non-B and more divergent B(More)
In the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, HIV-1 diversity surveys have been performed mainly in the capital, and little is known about HIV-1 molecular epidemiology in small, inner cities. We studied 87 polymerase sequences recovered from 2 different studies conducted in inner cities of Rio de Janeiro State: a cross-sectional survey of patients receiving care(More)
Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is a severe febrile disease, characterized by abnormalities in hemostasis and increased vascular permeability, which in some cases results in hypovolemic shock syndrome and in dengue shock syndrome. The clinical features of DHF include plasma leakage, bleeding tendency and liver involvement. We studied the histopathological(More)
The objective of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminthiasis and evaluate the sanitary conditions and the role of a mass treatment campaign for control of these infections in Santa Isabel do Rio Negro. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2002, to obtain data related to the sanitary conditions of the population(More)
The term schistosomiasis encompasses a group of infectious disorders caused by five species of the genus Schistosoma, a blood trematode of outstanding importance in tropical areas. Some of these disorders have long been associated with malignant neoplasia, the most striking association being between disease caused by Schistosoma haematobium, the predominant(More)
Retroviral genomes with a high frequency of G-->A mutations are thought to originate during reverse transcription (RT). Here we present a case report of an AIDS patient infected with a subtype F variant where extensive G-->A hypermutation (G-->A Hypm) sequences were found in the protease gene. This patient was failing HAART at the time the hypermutation was(More)
The reconstruction of the epidemic history of several HIV populations, by using methods that infer the population history from sampled gene sequence data, has revealed important subtype-specific and regional-specific differences in patterns of epidemic growth. Here, we employ Bayesian coalescent-based methods to compare the population history of the HIV-1(More)
As part of an ongoing study on the features of AIDS spread towards small cities and rural areas, we present a molecular survey of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) polymerase sequences recovered between 2004 and 2006 from 71 patients receiving care in the city of Saquarema, inner state of Rio de Janeiro. Phylogenetic reconstructions found the two(More)