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Alterations in hippocampal physiology affect cognition in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-associated dementia (HAD). The mechanism for how this occurs is not well understood. To address this, we investigated how changes in synaptic transmission and plasticity are affected by viral infection and macrophage activation using a severe combined(More)
BACKGROUND Cerebral vasospasm (VSP) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage. The current endovascular paradigm for VSP refractory to medical therapy is to perform angioplasty for proximal vessel VSP and vasodilator infusion for distal vessel VSP. OBJECTIVE To report our experience with a large series of balloon(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Abnormal arterial flow dynamics and intracranial collateral pathways can be seen in patients with congenital internal carotid artery (ICA) aplasia or hypoplasia. Here we seek to evaluate whether ICA aplasia/hypoplasia is associated with an increased prevalence of intracranial saccular aneurysm relative to carotid rete mirabile. (More)
Injection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) into the basal ganglia of severe combined immunodeficient mice recapitulates histopathologic features of HIV-1 encephalitis (HIVE). Here, we show that the neural damage in HIVE mice extends beyond the basal ganglia and is associated with cognitive(More)
HIV encephalitis is the common pathologic correlate of HIV-dementia (HAD). HIV-infected brain mononuclear phagocytes (MP) (macrophages and microglia) are reservoirs for persistent viral infection. When activated, MP contribute to neuronal damage. Such activated and virus-infected macrophages secrete cellular and viral factors, triggering neural destructive(More)
OBJECT The purpose of this retrospective study was to quantify the anatomical relationship between the vertebral artery (VA), the cervical pedicle, and its surrounding structures, including the incidence of irregularities. Additionally, data delineating a "safe zone," and these data's application during instrumentation with transpedicular cervical screw(More)
PURPOSE Infarct volume ≥100 mL on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) predicts symptomatic hemorrhagic transformation and poor outcome. Our aim was to determine the correlation between the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) and infarct volume and to identify the optimal value for describing infarcts ≥100 mL. METHODS This was a retrospective(More)
Cervical hemangiopericytoma (HPC) is a rare tumor involving dura and bone. Because HPC shares some imaging features with meningioma, hemangioblastoma, schwannoma and solitary fibrous tumors; histology with appropriate immunohistochemistry is essential for its diagnosis and treatment. HPC is highly vascular and has a high rate of local recurrence following(More)