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I. Introduction II. Molecular Aspects A. PPAR isotypes: identity, genomic organization and chromosomal localization B. DNA binding properties C. PPAR ligand-binding properties D. Alternative pathways for PPAR activation E. PPAR-mediated transactivation properties III. Physiological Aspects A. Differential expression of PPAR mRNAs B. PPAR target genes and(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) alpha and gamma are key regulators of lipid homeostasis and are activated by a structurally diverse group of compounds including fatty acids, eicosanoids, and hypolipidemic drugs such as fibrates and thiazolidinediones. While thiazolidinediones and 15-deoxy-Delta12, 14-prostaglandin J2 have been shown to(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily that can be activated by various xenobiotics and natural fatty acids. These transcription factors primarily regulate genes involved in lipid metabolism and also play a role in adipocyte differentiation. We present the expression patterns of the PPAR(More)
In developed societies, chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis and cancer are responsible for most deaths. These ailments have complex causes involving genetic, environmental and nutritional factors. There is evidence that a group of closely related nuclear receptors, called peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), may be(More)
Prolonged deprivation of food induces dramatic changes in mammalian metabolism, including the release of large amounts of fatty acids from the adipose tissue, followed by their oxidation in the liver. The nuclear receptor known as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) was found to play a role in regulating mitochondrial and(More)
Our understanding of metabolism is undergoing a dramatic shift. Indeed, the efforts made towards elucidating the mechanisms controlling the major regulatory pathways are now being rewarded. At the molecular level, the crucial role of transcription factors is particularly well-illustrated by the link between alterations of their functions and the occurrence(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors controlling the expression of genes involved in lipid homeostasis. PPARs activate gene transcription in response to a variety of compounds including hypolipidemic drugs as well as natural fatty acids. From the plethora of PPAR activators, Scatchard analysis of receptor-ligand(More)
Three novel members of the Xenopus nuclear hormone receptor superfamily have been cloned. They are related to each other and similar to the group of receptors that includes those for thyroid hormones, retinoids, and vitamin D3. Their transcriptional activity is regulated by agents causing peroxisome proliferation and carcinogenesis in rodent liver. All(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) compose a family of three nuclear receptors which act as lipid sensors to modulate gene expression. As such, PPARs are implicated in major metabolic and inflammatory regulations with far-reaching medical consequences, as well as in important processes controlling cellular fate. Throughout this review, we(More)
Inflammation is a local immune response to 'foreign' molecules, infection and injury. Leukotriene B4, a potent chemotactic agent that initiates, coordinates, sustains and amplifies the inflammatory response, is shown to be an activating ligand for the transcription factor PPARalpha. Because PPARalpha regulates the oxidative degradation of fatty acids and(More)