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The pharmacokinetics of isoniazid in man are described. Pronounced interindividual variation in circulating isoniazid concentration and clearance which occur after dosing with the drug are associated with hereditary differences in the acetylator status. The variations in rate of isoniazid inactivation and elimination in different (rapid and slow) acetylator(More)
Arylhydroxamic acid N,O-acyltransferase and Co-ASAc-dependent N-acetyltransferase activities were measured simultaneously in liver cytosols from rabbits of known acetylator phenotype. Both activities were high in rapid acetylator rabbits and low in slow acetylator rabbits indicating that these two acetyl transfer steps in the metabolic activation of certain(More)
Investigations in the rabbit have indicated the existence of more than one N-acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.5). At least two enzymes, possibly isoenzymes, were partially characterized. The enzymes differed in their tissue distribution, substrate specificity, stability and pH characteristics. One of the enzymes was primarily associated with liver and gut and(More)
Classification of humans as rapid or slow acetylators is based on hereditary differences in rates of N-acetylation of therapeutic and carcinogenic agents, but N-acetylation of certain arylamine drugs displays no genetic variations. Two highly homologous human genes for N-acetyltransferase (NAT; arylamine acetyltransferase, acetyl CoA:arylamine(More)
Studies on acetylation of sulfadiazine, isoniazid, and p-aminobenzoic acid in selected lines of slow and rapid acetylator rabbits are described. Pedigree analysis of rabbits classified as slow or rapid sulfadiazine acetylators confirmed previous studies that the rate of sulfadiazine elimination (acetylation) is genetically controlled, with rapid elimination(More)
The genotype at the NAT1* locus of an interethnic population of 38 unrelated subjects was determined by direct sequencing of 1.6-kb fragments amplified by PCR. The coding exon alone and together with the 3' noncoding exon of the wild-type (NAT1*4) and the three mutant alleles (NAT1*10, *11, and *16) detected was expressed in Escherichia coli and COS-1(More)
An inbred mouse model for the human N-acetylation polymorphism has been used to investigate the biochemical basis for the arylamine N-acetylation polymorphism and the relationship between the cytosolic enzymes arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT), arylhydroxamic acid N,O-acyltransferase, and N-hydroxyarylamine O-acetyltransferase. Biochemical studies of(More)
N-Acetylation plays an important role in the metabolism of a wide variety of hydrazine drugs and arylamine drugs and carcinogens. Humans have genetically determined differences in their N-acetyltransferase activities and are phenotypically classified as rapid or slow acetylators. Mice have a similar genetic polymorphism in N-acetyltransferase activity and(More)