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Chitosan, a hydrophilic biopolymer industrially obtained by N-deacetylation of chitin, can be applied as an antimicrobial agent. The current review of 129 references describes the biological activity of several chitosan derivatives and the modes of action that have been postulated in the literature. It highlights the applications of chitosan as an(More)
Pesticides are widely used in food production to increase food security despite the fact that they can have negative health effects on consumers. Pesticide residues have been found in various fruits and vegetables; both raw and processed. One of the most common routes of pesticide exposure in consumers is via food consumption. Most foods are consumed after(More)
With the potential advent of genetically modified herbicide-resistant (GMHR) crops in the European Union, changes in patterns of herbicide use are predicted. Broad-spectrum, non-selective herbicides used with GMHR crops are expected to substitute for a set of currently used herbicides, which might alter the agro-environmental footprint from crop production.(More)
In 1975, 60 samples of human body fat taken during the course of routine examinations by pathologists were analysed for organochlorine pesticide residues. The mean detected concentrations are 1.36 ppm for HCB, 0.76 ppm for betaHCH, 0.38 ppm for heptachlor epoxide, 0.26 ppm for dieldrin, 6.50 ppm for ppDDE, 0.27 ppm for ppDDD and 1.52 ppm for ppDDT. By(More)
Regulation EC No. 396/2005 from the European Parliament and the Council has required since September 2008 that cumulative and synergistic effects of pesticides be considered when Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) are adopted. On 15 April 2008, the PPR Panel adopted an opinion on the suitability of existing methodologies and proposed a tiered approach for(More)
BACKGROUND Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS), insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are key components in malaria prevention and control strategy. However, the development of resistance by mosquitoes to insecticides recommended for IRS and/or ITNs/LLINs would affect insecticide-based malaria vector control. We assessed the(More)
Experiments with flow-through and batch reactor systems, incubated either under air or under hydrogen, confirm literature data that atrazine present at low concentrations in water is very recalcitrant to microbial metabolism. Only a temporary adsorption could be observed. Dimethylamine and cyanuric acid, added at trace levels, failed to induce breakdown of(More)
Novel N,O-acyl chitosan (NOAC) derivatives were synthesized to examine their fungicidal activity against the gray mould fungus Botrytis cinerea (Leotiales: Sclerotiniaceae) and the rice leaf blast fungus Pyricularia oryzae (Teleomorph: Magnaporth grisea). The fungicidal activity was evaluated by the radial growth bioassay. NOAC derivatives were more active(More)
To estimate the exposure of the Belgian population to food contaminated with pesticide residues and to determine what pesticides people are actually consuming, a total diet study-individual approach-was performed. Fourteen kinds of fruits, 22 kinds of vegetables, and 7 other food items (coffee, drinking water, rice, tea, wine, bran, and wheat flour) were(More)
Chitosan, the N-deacetylated derivative of chitin, is a potential biopolysaccharide owing to its specific structure and properties. In this paper, we report on the synthesis of 24 new chitosan derivatives, N-alkyl chitosans (NAC) and N-benzyl chitosans (NBC), that are soluble in dilute aqueous acetic acid. The different derivatives were synthesized by(More)