Walter Schmitt

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A new mechanistic, universal model for the calculation of steady state tissue:plasma partition coefficients (Kt:p) of organic chemicals in mammalian species was developed. The approach allows the estimation of Kt:p-values based on the composition of the tissues in terms of water, neutral lipids, neutral and acidic phospholipids and proteins using the(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Clearance is an important pharmacokinetic concept for scaling dosage, understanding the risks of drug-drug interactions and environmental risk assessment in children. Accurate clearance scaling to children requires prior knowledge of adult clearance mechanisms and the age-dependence of physiological and enzymatic development. The(More)
The increasing use of tissue dosimetry estimated using pharmacokinetic models in chemical risk assessments in various jurisdictions necessitates the development of internationally recognized good modelling practice (GMP). These practices would facilitate sharing of models and model evaluations and consistent applications in risk assessments. Clear(More)
BACKGROUND Clinical trials in children are being encouraged by regulatory authorities in light of the immense off-label and unlicensed use of drugs in the paediatric population. The use of in silico techniques for pharmacokinetic prediction will aid in the development of paediatric clinical trials by guiding dosing regimens, ensuring efficient blood(More)
A physiologically based model for gastrointestinal transit and absorption in humans is presented. The model can be used to study the dependency of the fraction dose absorbed (F(abs)) of both neutral and ionizable compounds on the two main physicochemical input parameters (the intestinal permeability coefficient (P(int)) and the solubility in the intestinal(More)
During the past decade, the pharmaceutical industry has invested considerably in technologies that have the potential to increase throughput in discovery projects. For large compound libraries, efficacy, availability and safety should be determined as early and as reliably as possible. The latest step in this effort is the implementation of in silico(More)
We report on the advantages and problems of using toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TKTD) models for the analysis, understanding, and simulation of sublethal effects. Only a few toxicodynamic approaches for sublethal effects are available. These differ in their effect mechanism and emphasis on linkages between endpoints. We discuss how the distinction between(More)
BACKGROUND Whole-body physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (WB-PBPK) models mathematically describe an organism as a closed circulatory system consisting of compartments that represent the organs important for compound absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination. OBJECTIVES To review the current state of WB-PBPK model use in the clinical phases(More)
In clinical development stages, an a priori assessment of the sensitivity of the pharmacokinetic behavior with respect to physiological and anthropometric properties of human (sub-) populations is desirable. A physiology-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) population model was developed that makes use of known distributions of physiological and anthropometric(More)
Effects of chemicals are, in most cases, caused by internal concentrations within organisms which rely on uptake and elimination kinetics. These processes might be key components for assessing the effects of time-variable exposure of chemicals which regularly occur in aquatic systems. However, the knowledge of toxicokinetic patterns caused by time-variable(More)