Walter Schmid

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The cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) has been implicated as a key regulator in the transcriptional control of many genes. To assess the functional importance of CREB in vivo and its role in development, we used gene targeting to generate mice with a disruption of the CREB gene. Homozygous mutant mice appeared healthy and exhibited no impairment(More)
Steroid responsive elements (SRE) have been mapped at variable positions relative to the transcription start site and are often adjacent to binding sites of transcription regulatory proteins. In order to define the role of these transcriptional control sequences in the induction process, we inserted the previously defined 15-bp glucocorticoid response(More)
Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR)-deficient mice were generated by gene targeting. These animals had a normal prenatal development. During the first week of life, MR-deficient (-/-) mice developed symptoms of pseudohypoaldosteronism. They finally lost weight and eventually died at around day 10 after birth from dehydration by renal sodium and water loss. At(More)
Cyclic AMP treatment of hepatoma cells leads to increased protein binding at the cyclic AMP response element (CRE) of the tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) gene in vivo, as revealed by genomic footprinting, whereas no increase is observed at the CRE of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene. Several criteria establish that the 43 kDa CREB protein(More)
The role of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in glucocorticoid physiology and during development was investigated by generation of GR-deficient mice by gene targeting. GR -/- mice die within a few hours after birth because of respiratory failure. The lungs at birth are severely atelectatic, and development is impaired from day 15.5 p.c. Newborn livers have(More)
Molecular mechanisms underlying the generation of distinct cell phenotypes is a key issue in developmental biology. A major paradigm of determination of neural cell fate concerns the development of sympathetic neurones and neuroendocrine chromaffin cells from a common sympathoadrenal (SA) progenitor cell. Two decades of in vitro experiments have suggested(More)
Two glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) located 2.5 kb upstream of the transcription initiation site of the tyrosine aminotransferase gene were identified by gene transfer experiments and shown to bind to purified glucocorticoid receptor. Although the proximal GRE has no inherent capacity by itself to stimulate transcription, when present in conjunction(More)
Corticosterone is known to suppress levels of 5-HTA(1A) receptor mRNA in rat hippocampus. We describe hippocampal 5-HT(1A) receptor mRNA regulation in mice that have a targeted disruption of the glucocorticoid receptor gene. 5-HT(1A) receptor mRNA levels as well as binding of [3H]8-OH-DPAT, were measured in the hippocampus of heterozygous and homozygous(More)
The expression of the constitutive transcription factors activating transcription factor-2 (ATF-2), serum response factor (SRF) and cAMP/Ca response element binding factor (CREB), and the phosphorylation of SRF and CREB were studied in the untreated adult rat nervous system and following seizure activities and neurodegenerative stimuli. In the untreated(More)
In order to define the mechanism of synergistic induction mediated by multiple glucocorticoid response elements (GRE), the affinity of the glucocorticoid receptor to a single or duplicated GRE was analyzed by gel retardation, nitrocellulose filter binding and by footprinting experiments. Direct measurement of the relative affinity and indirect determination(More)