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BACKGROUND Artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum lengthens parasite clearance half-life during artemisinin monotherapy or artemisinin-based combination therapy. Absence of in-vitro and ex-vivo correlates of artemisinin resistance hinders study of this phenotype. We aimed to assess whether an in-vitro ring-stage survival assay (RSA) can identify(More)
Artesunate (AS) plus amodiaquine (AQ) is one artemisinin-based combination (ACT) recommended by the WHO for treating Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Fixed-dose AS/AQ is new, but its safety and efficacy are hitherto untested. A randomized, open-label trial was conducted comparing the efficacy (non-inferiority design) and safety of fixed (F) dose AS (25 mg)/AQ(More)
Streptococcus suis infection is acquired through exposure to contaminated pigs or pig meat. Over the past few years, the number of reported S. suis infections in humans has increased significantly, with most cases originating in Southeast Asia, where there is a high density of pigs. Increased awareness, improved diagnostics, and the occurrence of outbreaks(More)
The WHO recommends artemisinin-based combination therapies for treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria. At least 15 African countries have adopted artesunate plus amodiaquine as treatment policy. As no pharmacokinetic data on this combination have been published to date, we investigated its pharmacokinetic interactions and tolerability in healthy(More)
BACKGROUND The six-dose regimen of artemether-lumefantrine is effective and is among combination therapies prioritised to replace antimalarials that no longer work in Africa. However, its effectiveness has not been assessed in the field, and could be compromised by poor adherence, incorrect timing of doses, and insufficient intake of fatty foods with every(More)
Parasite clearance data from 18,699 patients with falciparum malaria treated with an artemisinin derivative in areas of low (n=14,539), moderate (n=2077), and high (n=2083) levels of malaria transmission across the world were analyzed to determine the factors that affect clearance rates and identify a simple in vivo screening measure for artemisinin(More)
Lung involvement in malaria has been recognized for more than 200 hundred years, yet our knowledge of its pathogenesis and management is limited. Pulmonary edema is the most severe form of lung involvement. Increased alveolar capillary permeability leading to intravascular fluid loss into the lungs is the main pathophysiologic mechanism. This defines(More)
BACKGROUND Delivering drugs in a fixed combination is essential to the success of the strategy of artemisinin-based combination therapy. This prevents one drug being taken without the protection of the other, reducing the chance of emergence and spread of drug resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. A lower tablet burden should also facilitate adherence(More)
Multiple enzymes with overlapping functions and shared substrates in the glutathione (GSH) metabolic pathway have been associated with host susceptibility to tobacco smoke carcinogens and in lung cancer etiology. However, few studies have investigated the differing and interacting roles of GSH pathway enzymes with tobacco smoke exposure on lung cancer risk(More)
Artesunate and amodiaquine (AS&AQ) is at present the world's second most widely used artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). It was necessary to evaluate the efficacy of ACT, recently adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) and deployed over 80 countries, in order to make an evidence-based drug policy. An individual patient data (IPD) analysis(More)