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BACKGROUND An improvement in overall survival among patients with metastatic melanoma has been an elusive goal. In this phase 3 study, ipilimumab--which blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 to potentiate an antitumor T-cell response--administered with or without a glycoprotein 100 (gp100) peptide vaccine was compared with gp100 alone in(More)
OX40 is a potent costimulatory receptor that can potentiate T-cell receptor signaling on the surface of T lymphocytes, leading to their activation by a specifically recognized antigen. In particular, OX40 engagement by ligands present on dendritic cells dramatically increases the proliferation, effector function, and survival of T cells. Preclinical studies(More)
PURPOSE We previously reported that autophagy in tumor cells plays a critical role in cross-presentation of tumor antigens and that autophagosomes are efficient antigen carriers for cross-priming of tumor-reactive CD8(+) T cells. Here, we sought to characterize further the autophagosome-enriched vaccine named DRibble (DRiPs-containing blebs), which is(More)
PURPOSE The combination of vaccines and chemotherapy holds promise for cancer therapy, but the effect of cytotoxic chemotherapy on vaccine-induced antitumor immunity is unknown. This study was conducted to assess the effects of systemic chemotherapy on ALVAC-CEA/B7.1-induced T-cell immunity in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. EXPERIMENTAL(More)
Cross-presentation of antigens is critical for the induction of adaptive immunity against tumor cells and infectious pathogens. Currently, it is not known how cross-presentation of tumor antigens is regulated by autophagy. Using both HEK 293T cells that expressed the model antigen OVA and melanoma cells as antigen donors, we show that macroautophagy in(More)
The OX-40 receptor (OX-40R), a member of the TNFR family, is primarily expressed on activated CD4+ T lymphocytes. Engagement of the OX-40R, with either OX-40 ligand (OX-40L) or an Ab agonist, delivers a strong costimulatory signal to effector T cells. OX-40R+ T cells isolated from inflammatory lesions in the CNS of animals with experimental autoimmune(More)
Recent investigations of the tumor microenvironment have shown that many tumors are infiltrated by inflammatory and lymphocytic cells. Increasing evidence suggests that the number, type and location of these tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in primary tumors has prognostic value, and this has led to the development of an ‘immunoscore. As well as providing(More)
When naïve T cells reconstitute lymphopenic hosts, they transiently proliferate and differentiate into memory-like T cells. Here we report that tumor-specific T cells preferentially expand in tumor vaccine-draining lymph nodes after a melanoma vaccine given to RAG1 mice reconstituted with naïve T cells from normal mice. The percentage of tumor-specific Tc1(More)
  • H M Hu, W J Urba, B A Fox
  • 1998
Vaccination with a poorly immunogenic/nonimmunogenic tumor fails to protect the host from a subsequent challenge with the same tumor. The mechanisms underlying the failure of these tumors to sensitize therapeutic T cells are not clearly understood, but the inability of host T cells to recognize tumor has been implicated. In this study, vaccination with the(More)
The immunotherapeutic agent ipilimumab has helped address a significant unmet need in the treatment of advanced melanoma. Ipilimumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody that targets cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), thereby augmenting antitumor immune responses. After decades in which a number of clinical trials were conducted, ipilimumab was the(More)