Walter J. Urba

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BACKGROUND An improvement in overall survival among patients with metastatic melanoma has been an elusive goal. In this phase 3 study, ipilimumab--which blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 to potentiate an antitumor T-cell response--administered with or without a glycoprotein 100 (gp100) peptide vaccine was compared with gp100 alone in(More)
PURPOSE This randomized, controlled, multicenter, open-label, phase III study compared docetaxel versus paclitaxel in patients with advanced breast cancer that had progressed after an anthracycline-containing chemotherapy regimen. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients (n = 449) were randomly assigned to receive either docetaxel 100 mg/m2 (n = 225) or paclitaxel(More)
PURPOSE The Cytokine Working Group conducted a randomized phase III trial to determine the value of outpatient interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon alfa-2b (IFN) relative to high-dose (HD) IL-2 in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients were stratified for bone and liver metastases, primary tumor in place, and Eastern(More)
We have recently described molecular changes in T cells from tumor-bearing patients that are associated with depressed immune function. The present work investigates changes in T-cell signal transduction proteins including the T-cell receptor-zeta (TCR-zeta) chain and receptor-associated tyrosine kinases in patients with metastatic malignant melanoma. A(More)
PURPOSE This trial evaluated the safety, clinical activity, and immunogenicity of an allogeneic cellular immunotherapy in 55 chemotherapy-naïve patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). The immunotherapy, based on the GVAX platform, is a combination of two prostate carcinoma cell lines modified with the granulocyte macrophage(More)
OX40 is a potent costimulatory receptor that can potentiate T-cell receptor signaling on the surface of T lymphocytes, leading to their activation by a specifically recognized antigen. In particular, OX40 engagement by ligands present on dendritic cells dramatically increases the proliferation, effector function, and survival of T cells. Preclinical studies(More)
Preclinical models suggest that focal high-dose radiation can make tumors more immunogenic. We performed a pilot study of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) followed by high-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) to assess safety and tumor response rate and perform exploratory immune monitoring studies. Patients with metastatic melanoma or renal cell carcinoma(More)
The immunotherapeutic agent ipilimumab has helped address a significant unmet need in the treatment of advanced melanoma. Ipilimumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody that targets cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), thereby augmenting antitumor immune responses. After decades in which a number of clinical trials were conducted, ipilimumab was the(More)
The OX-40 receptor (OX-40R), a member of the TNFR family, is primarily expressed on activated CD4+ T lymphocytes. Engagement of the OX-40R, with either OX-40 ligand (OX-40L) or an Ab agonist, delivers a strong costimulatory signal to effector T cells. OX-40R+ T cells isolated from inflammatory lesions in the CNS of animals with experimental autoimmune(More)
PURPOSE We previously reported that autophagy in tumor cells plays a critical role in cross-presentation of tumor antigens and that autophagosomes are efficient antigen carriers for cross-priming of tumor-reactive CD8(+) T cells. Here, we sought to characterize further the autophagosome-enriched vaccine named DRibble (DRiPs-containing blebs), which is(More)