Walter J. Rogan

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This paper deals with some basis properties of screening tests. Such tests purport to separate people with disease from people without. Minimal criteria for such a process to be a test are discussed. Various ways of judging the goodness of a test are examined. A common use of tests is to estimate prevalence of disease; frequency of positive tests is shown(More)
OBJECTIVES Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE) are ubiquitous toxic environmental contaminants. Prenatal and early life exposures affect pubertal events in experimental animals. We studied whether prenatal or lactational exposures to background levels of PCBs or DDE were associated with altered pubertal growth and(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) or dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE), either transplacentally or through breast feeding, affected scores on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development at 6 or 12 months of age. DESIGN Cohort followed from birth to 1 year of age. SETTING General community. PARTICIPANTS(More)
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent pollutants that are ubiquitous in the food chain, and detectable amounts are in the blood of almost every person in most populations that have been examined. Extensive evidence from animal studies shows that PCBs are neurotoxins, even at low doses. Interpretation of human data regarding low-level, early-life(More)
In 1979, a mass poisoning occurred in Taiwan from cooking oil contaminated by thermally degraded polychlorinated biphenyls. Because these chemicals persist in human tissue, children born to female patients after the outbreak were exposed in utero. In 1985, 117 children born to affected women and 108 unexposed controls were examined and evaluated. The(More)
We followed 858 children from birth to one year of age to determine whether the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE) in breast milk affected their growth or health. Neither chemical showed an adverse effect on weight or frequency of physician visits for various illnesses, although differences were seen(More)
The authors measured polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE) in maternal serum, cord blood, placenta, and serial samples of breast milk from 868 women. Almost all samples of breast milk showed detectable levels of both chemicals. Overall, values for DDE in this study are within the range of those found previously, whereas(More)
Neonatal effects of transplacental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE) were examined in a study of 912 infants. Birth weight, head circumference, and neonatal jaundice showed no relationship to PCBs or DDE. We also administered the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scales, which are psychologic and(More)
DDT (bis[4-chlorophenyl]-1,1,1-trichloroethane) is a persistent insecticide that was used worldwide from the mid 1940s until its ban in the USA and other countries in the 1970s. When a global ban on DDT was proposed in 2001, several countries in sub-Saharan Africa claimed that DDT was still needed as a cheap and effective means for vector control. Although(More)
AIMS To determine the factors that affect why some infants receive higher exposures relative to the mother's body burden than do others. METHODS A total of 159 mother-infant pairs from a cohort of women receiving prenatal care at Magee-Womens Hospital in Pittsburgh, PA from 1992 to 1995 provided blood samples at delivery for lead determination. The(More)