Learn More
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent pollutants that are ubiquitous in the food chain, and detectable amounts are in the blood of almost every person in most populations that have been examined. Extensive evidence from animal studies shows that PCBs are neurotoxins, even at low doses. Interpretation of human data regarding low-level, early-life(More)
Soy infant formulas are widely used, but few studies have evaluated long-term safety or examined specific forms of toxicity, such as to the endocrine or immune systems. This review focuses on newer experimental studies of the effects on estrogen activity, immune function, and thyroid economy of genistein and daidzein, two isoflavones in soy infant formula,(More)
OBJECTIVES Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE) are ubiquitous toxic environmental contaminants. Prenatal and early life exposures affect pubertal events in experimental animals. We studied whether prenatal or lactational exposures to background levels of PCBs or DDE were associated with altered pubertal growth and(More)
BACKGROUND Data from several studies indicate that children of mothers who smoked during pregnancy may be at a risk of overweight compared with children of non-smoking mothers. The size of this relation, however, is unclear, as is the age at which it becomes detectable. METHODS Prospective data for 34 866 children enrolled in the US Collaborative(More)
DDT (bis[4-chlorophenyl]-1,1,1-trichloroethane) is a persistent insecticide that was used worldwide from the mid 1940s until its ban in the USA and other countries in the 1970s. When a global ban on DDT was proposed in 2001, several countries in sub-Saharan Africa claimed that DDT was still needed as a cheap and effective means for vector control. Although(More)
In 1979, a mass poisoning occurred in Taiwan from cooking oil contaminated by thermally degraded polychlorinated biphenyls. Because these chemicals persist in human tissue, children born to female patients after the outbreak were exposed in utero. In 1985, 117 children born to affected women and 108 unexposed controls were examined and evaluated. The(More)
BACKGROUND Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) are persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic pollutants that were broadly used in the United States until the 1970s. Common exposure to PCBs, DDT, and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), the most stable metabolite of DDT, may influence children's neurodevelopment, but(More)
BACKGROUND Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic compounds that are widely used in industry and are often detectable in humans. In pregnant rats and their pups, PFASs can interfere with thyroid hormone homeostasis. In humans, maternal thyroid hormones supply the fetus throughout pregnancy, and thyroid hormones play a critical role in fetal growth(More)
BACKGROUND Environmental exposure of infants to perchlorate, thiocyanate, nitrate, might interfere with thyroid function. U.S. women with higher background perchlorate exposure have higher thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and lower thyroxine (T4). There are no studies with individual measures of thyroid function and these goitrogens available in infants.(More)
This study examines the timing of menarche in relation to infant-feeding methods, specifically addressing the potential effects of soy isoflavone exposure through soy-based infant feeding. Subjects were participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Mothers were enrolled during pregnancy and their children have been followed(More)