Walter Horton

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We provide evidence for apoptosis in Alzheimer's disease using the in situ labeling technique TUNEL (terminal transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling). The technique specifically detects apoptotic cells by utilizing terminal transferase to incorporate biotinylated nucleotides into the fragmented DNA of apoptotic cells. The labeled cells are(More)
The endoplasmic reticulum is the site of synthesis and folding of secretory proteins and is sensitive to changes in the internal and external environment of the cell. Both physiological and pathological conditions may perturb the function of the endoplasmic reticulum, resulting in endoplasmic reticulum stress. The chondrocyte is the only resident cell found(More)
Collagen II is synthesized at high levels by differentiated chondrocytes. A 620-base pair DNA sequence in the first intron of the rat collagen II gene was previously determined to have chondrocyte-specific enhancer activity. Using mobility shift assays, we have defined a decamer sequence, 5'-CACAATGCAT-3', in the middle of the enhancer that binds a protein(More)
OBJECTIVE The aggrecan proteoglycan is a major component of articular cartilage and supports the biomechanical function of this tissue. A variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism has been discovered recently in a region of the human aggrecan gene that codes for the chondroitin sulfate attachment sites. We examined whether alleles of this(More)
The regulation of Col2a1, which encodes type II collagen, likely results from a balance of both positive and negative proteins. Here we present evidence that the transcription factor deltaEF1 participates in the negative regulation of Col2a1 transcription. A deletion analysis suggested that a region between -100 and -307 of the rat Col2a1 gene was required(More)
Retinoic acid can alter the differentiation of a variety of cell types, including chondrocytes. This action may explain the high incidence of craniofacial and limb defects resulting from exposure to retinoic acid during development, and may be the basis for the compound's inhibition of a chondrosarcoma tumor in vivo. In order to understand the mechanism of(More)
The regulation of the collagen II gene was investigated by transfecting plasmids containing potential regulatory sequences of this gene coupled to the gene for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) into various cells. The 5' flanking region of this gene functioned as a weak promoter when transfected into chicken chondrocytes or fibroblasts. Inclusion of(More)
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cryopreservation on the components of articular cartilage (AC) matrix by utilizing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and biochemical assessments. Porcine AC (10mm osteochondral dowels) was collected into four groups - (1) phosphate buffered saline (PBS) control, (2) PBS snap frozen in liquid(More)
Several anecdotal statements have commonly been used to describe the relationship between aging and degenerative cartilage disease or osteoarthritis (OA). For example, it is commonly stated that there are two fundamental mechanisms that lead to OA; either abnormal loading on normal cartilage or normal loading on abnormal cartilage. The first case refers to(More)
The composition of cartilage is predictive of its in vivo performance. Therefore, the ability to assess its primary macromolecular components, proteoglycan (PG) and collagen, is of great importance. In the current study, we hypothesized that PG content and distribution in tissue engineered cartilage could be determined using Fourier-transform infrared(More)