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OBJECTIVE To determine the optimal range of increase in haemoglobin concentration with treatment with erythropoietins that is safe and is not associated with mortality. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. The analysis was adjusted for several covariables with Cox regression analysis with spline functions. Use of erythropoietins, haemoglobin concentration,(More)
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit the isoenzymes COX-1 and COX-2 of cyclooxygenase (COX). Renal side effects (e.g., kidney function, fluid and urinary electrolyte excretion) vary with the extent of COX-2-COX-1 selectivity and the administered dose of these compounds. While young healthy subjects will rarely experience adverse renal(More)
Iron deficiency is the most common cause of hyporesponsiveness to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Iron deficiency can easily be corrected by intravenous iron administration, which is more effective than oral iron supplementation, at least in adult patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Iron status(More)
Although iron sucrose and iron gluconate are generally well tolerated in patients who are treated for renal anemia, recent clinical studies and cell culture experiments suggested significant toxicity and long-term side effects arising from the use of these iron complexes. Because of the possible role of iron in infection or cardiovascular disease, it was(More)
OBJECTIVE We determined prevalence, risk factors, phenotype, and pathophysiological mechanism of new-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) to generate strategies for optimal pharmacological management of hyperglycemia in NODAT patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Retrospective cohort study comparing demographics, laboratory data, and oral glucose(More)
BACKGROUND Disturbed polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) apoptosis contributes to the dysregulation of the non-specific immune system in uraemia. Intracellular Ca(2+) modulates PMNL apoptotic cell death. We investigated the effect of para-hydroxy-hippuric acid (PHA), an erythrocyte plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor accumulating in uraemic sera, and of(More)
BACKGROUND Overt chronic metabolic acidosis in patients with chronic kidney disease develops after a drop of glomerular filtration rate to less than approximately 25 mL/min/1.73 m2. The pathogenic mechanism seems to be a lack of tubular bicarbonate production, which in healthy individuals neutralizes the acid net production. As shown in several animal and(More)
BACKGROUND Vitamin D does not only regulate calcium homeostasis but also plays an important role as an immune modulator. It influences the immune system through the induction of immune shifts and regulatory cells resulting in immunologic tolerance. As such, vitamin D is thought to exert beneficial effects within the transplant setting, especially in kidney(More)
Leflunomide, a potent disease-modifying antirheumatic drug used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), exhibits anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative and immunosuppressive effects. Although most of the beneficial effects of leflunomide have been attributed to its antimetabolite activity, mainly in T cells, other targets accounting for its potency(More)