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OBJECTIVE To determine the optimal range of increase in haemoglobin concentration with treatment with erythropoietins that is safe and is not associated with mortality. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. The analysis was adjusted for several covariables with Cox regression analysis with spline functions. Use of erythropoietins, haemoglobin concentration,(More)
Enteral nutrition (EN) by means of oral nutritional supplements (ONS) and tube feeding (TF) offers the possibility of increasing or ensuring nutrient intake in cases where normal food intake is inadequate. These guidelines are intended to give evidence-based recommendations for the use of ONS and TF in nephrology patients. They were developed by an(More)
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit the isoenzymes COX-1 and COX-2 of cyclooxygenase (COX). Renal side effects (e.g., kidney function, fluid and urinary electrolyte excretion) vary with the extent of COX-2-COX-1 selectivity and the administered dose of these compounds. While young healthy subjects will rarely experience adverse renal(More)
Recently, the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) group has produced comprehensive clinical practice guidelines for the management of anaemia in CKD patients. These guidelines addressed all of the important points related to anaemia management in CKD patients, including therapy with erythropoieis stimulating agents (ESA), iron therapy, ESA(More)
Iron deficiency is the most common cause of hyporesponsiveness to erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Iron deficiency can easily be corrected by intravenous iron administration, which is more effective than oral iron supplementation, at least in adult patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Iron status(More)
BACKGROUND The PRE-dialysis survey on anaemia management (PRESAM) was designed to assess the care given to pre-dialysis patients in the 12 months before haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, with emphasis on anaemia management. METHODS For this epidemiological study, a retrospective chart review was conducted for patients who started haemodialysis or(More)
BACKGROUND Malnutrition is common in dialysis patients and closely related to morbidity and mortality. Therefore, assessment of nutritional status and nutritional management of dialysis patients play a central role in everyday nephrological practice. METHODS Achieving a consensus on key points relating to pathogenesis, clinical assessment, and nutritional(More)
BACKGROUND Capillary deposition of complement split product C4d has been suggested to be a valuable marker for humoral rejection. In this retrospective study we evaluated the clinical impact of C4d deposition in renal allografts with special emphasis on associations between C4d staining patterns and histological features of acute rejection. METHODS One(More)
A central role for the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in innate immunity has been recently defined by its ability to limit proinflammatory mediators. Although glucocorticoids (GCs) exert potent anti-inflammatory effects in innate immune cells, it is currently unknown whether the mTOR pathway interferes with GC signaling. Here we show that inhibition(More)