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The effluent of 17 sewage treatment works (STW) across Norway, Sweden, Finland, The Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, France and Switzerland was studied for the presence of estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), ethinylestradiol (EE2) and nonylphenol (NP). Treatment processes included primary and chemical treatment only, submerged aerated filter, oxidation ditch,(More)
The mass flows of fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents (FQs) were investigated in the aqueous compartments of the Glatt Valley Watershed, a densely populated region in Switzerland. The major human-use FQs consumed in Switzerland, ciprofloxacin (CIP) and norfloxacin (NOR), were determined in municipal wastewater effluents and in the receiving surface water,(More)
The occurrence of sulfonamide and macrolide antimicrobials, as well as trimethoprim, was investigated in conventional activated sludge treatment. Average daily loads in untreated wastewater correlated well with those estimated from annual consumption data and pharmacokinetic behavior. Considerable variations were found during a day, and seasonal differences(More)
The behavior of fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents (FQs) during mechanical-biological wastewater treatment was studied by mass flow analysis. In addition, the fate of FQs in agricultural soils after sludge application was investigated. Concentrations of FQs in filtered wastewater (raw sewage, primary, secondary, and tertiary effluents) were determined(More)
Five wastewater treatment plant effluents were analyzed for known endocrine disrupters and estrogenicity. Estrogenicity was determined by using the yeast estrogen screen (YES) and by measuring the blood plasma vitellogenin (VTG) concentrations in exposed male rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). While all wastewater treatment plant effluents contained(More)
Nonylphenol (NP), nonlyphenol monoethoxylate (NP1EO) and nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP2EO) were determined in different freshwater organisms from the surface waters in the Glatt Valley, Switzerland. Rather high concentrations of the compounds investigated have been found to occur in macrophytic algae, particularly Cladophora glomerata (up to 38 mg kg(-1), 80(More)
This is the first publication on arsenic contamination of the Red River alluvial tract in the city of Hanoi and in the surrounding rural districts. Due to naturally occurring organic matter in the sediments, the groundwaters are anoxic and rich in iron. With an average arsenic concentration of 159 micrograms/L, the contamination levels varied from 1 to 3050(More)
Anaerobically treated sewage sludge was found to contain extraordinarily high concentrations of 4-nonylphenol, a metabolite derived from nonionic surfactants of the nonylphenol polyethoxylate type. Concentrations in activated sewage sludge, in mixed primary and secondary sludge, and in aerobically stabilized sludge were substantially lower, suggesting that(More)
The elimination of sulfonamides, macrolides and trimethoprim from raw wastewater was investigated in several municipal wastewater treatment plants. Primary treatment provided no significant elimination for the investigated substances. Similar eliminations were observed in the secondary treatment of two conventional activated sludge (CAS) systems and a(More)
Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), and decabromodiphenyl ether (DecaBDE) are high production volume chemicals used as flame retardants in plastics for products such as electronic equipment, insulation panels, and textiles. The environmental safety of brominated flame retardants, especially their persistence, bioaccumulation, and(More)