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Up-regulation of the cAMP pathway by forskolin or alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone induces melanocyte and melanoma cell differentiation characterized by stimulation of melanin synthesis and dendrite development. Here we show that forskolin-induced dendricity is associated to a disassembly of actin stress fibers. Since Rho controls actin organization, we(More)
The signal transduction pathways connecting cell surface receptors to the activation of muscle-specific promoters and leading to myogenesis are still largely unknown. Recently, a contribution of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway to this process was evoked through the use of pharmacological inhibitors. We used several mutants of the(More)
In mammalian melanocytes, melanin synthesis is controlled by tyrosinase, the critical enzyme in the melanogenic pathway. We and others showed that the stimulation of melanogenesis by cAMP is due to an increased tyrosinase expression at protein and mRNA levels. However, the molecular events connecting the rise of intracellular cAMP and the increase in(More)
The peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor ␥ (PPAR ␥) is highly expressed in the colon mucosa and its activation has been reported to protect against colitis. We studied the involvement of PPAR ␥ and its heterodimeric partner, the retinoid X receptor (RXR) in intestinal in-flammatory responses. PPAR ␥ ϩ / Ϫ and RXR ␣ ϩ / Ϫ mice both displayed a(More)
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is highly expressed in the colon mucosa and its activation has been reported to protect against colitis. We studied the involvement of PPARgamma and its heterodimeric partner, the retinoid X receptor (RXR) in intestinal inflammatory responses. PPARgamma(1/)- and RXRalpha(1/)- mice both(More)
In B16 melanoma cells, mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are activated during cAMP-induced melanogenesis (Englaro, W., Rezzonico, R., Durand-Clément, M., Lallemand, D., Ortonne, J. P., and Ballotti, R. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 24315-24320). To establish the role of the MAP kinases in melanogenesis, we studied the effects of a specific MAP kinase(More)
Melanogenesis is a physiological process resulting in the synthesis of melanin pigments which play a crucial protective role against skin photocarcinogenesis. In vivo, solar ultraviolet light triggers the secretion of numerous keratinocyte-derived factors that are implicated in the regulation of melanogenesis. Among these, tumor necrosis factor alpha(More)
Cancer-associated point mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) confer a neomorphic enzymatic activity: the reduction of α-ketoglutarate to d-2-hydroxyglutaric acid, which is proposed to act as an oncogenic metabolite by inducing hypermethylation of histones and DNA. Although selective inhibitors of mutant IDH1 and IDH2 have been(More)
Exposure to ultraviolet radiation of solar light is responsible for inflammation, premature skin aging and is the main cause of human skin carcinogenesis. While the noxious consequences of U.V. exposure are known, the molecular events triggered by this radiation are poorly understood. We observed that U.V.-A and U.V.-B irradiation of human keratinocytes(More)
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