Walter E Zink

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Alterations in hippocampal physiology affect cognition in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-associated dementia (HAD). The mechanism for how this occurs is not well understood. To address this, we investigated how changes in synaptic transmission and plasticity are affected by viral infection and macrophage activation using a severe combined(More)
Injection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) into the basal ganglia of severe combined immunodeficient mice recapitulates histopathologic features of HIV-1 encephalitis (HIVE). Here, we show that the neural damage in HIVE mice extends beyond the basal ganglia and is associated with cognitive(More)
Infection of the nervous system by HIV-1 commonly causes a broad range of cognitive, behavioral, and motor abnormalities called, in its most severe form, HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD). HAD is a metabolic encephalopathy caused by productive viral infection of brain mononuclear phagocytes (MPs) (perivascular and parenchymal brain macrophages and microglia)(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type-one (HIV- 1)-associated dementia (HAD) is manifested as a spectrum of behavioral, motor and cognitive dysfunctions. The disorder commonly occurs during late stage HIV disease and remains an important complication despite highly active antiretroviral therapies. A metabolic encephalopathy, fueled by neurotoxic secretions from(More)
OBJECT The purpose of this retrospective study was to quantify the anatomical relationship between the vertebral artery (VA), the cervical pedicle, and its surrounding structures, including the incidence of irregularities. Additionally, data delineating a "safe zone," and these data's application during instrumentation with transpedicular cervical screw(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Abnormal arterial flow dynamics and intracranial collateral pathways can be seen in patients with congenital internal carotid artery (ICA) aplasia or hypoplasia. Here we seek to evaluate whether ICA aplasia/hypoplasia is associated with an increased prevalence of intracranial saccular aneurysm relative to carotid rete mirabile. (More)
Palsy of the third cranial nerve (oculomotor nerve, CNIII) is a well-known clinical presentation of posterior communicating artery (P-com) aneurysm. We report a series of 11 patients with partial or complete third nerve palsy secondary to P-com aneurysm. All were treated with endovascular embolization within seven days of symptom onset. Third nerve palsy(More)
Diagnosis and management of a complex tentorial dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) of the straight sinus with vein of Galen aneurysmal dilatation is presented. A 65-year-old woman with remote history of cranial gunshot lapsed into coma after months of progressive neurological decline. Computed tomography brain scan showed cerebellar hemorrhage while(More)
BACKGROUND Cerebral vasospasm (VSP) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage. The current endovascular paradigm for VSP refractory to medical therapy is to perform angioplasty for proximal vessel VSP and vasodilator infusion for distal vessel VSP. OBJECTIVE To report our experience with a large series of balloon(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The internal carotid artery (ICA) in the rat has a single extracranial branch, which supplies the muscles of mastication. The rat ICA also has multiple intracranial branches including (from proximal to distal): multiple small perforating arteries which supply the hypothalamus and the anterior choroidal artery which supplies the(More)