Walter E. Kaufmann

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Neuronal activity is an essential stimulus for induction of plasticity and normal development of the CNS. We have used differential cloning techniques to identify a novel immediate-early gene (IEG) cDNA that is rapidly induced in neurons by activity in models of adult and developmental plasticity. Both the mRNA and the encoded protein are enriched in(More)
Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) induce long-term depression (LTD) that requires protein synthesis. Here, we demonstrate that Arc/Arg3.1 is translationally induced within 5 min of mGluR activation, and this response is essential for mGluR-dependent LTD. The increase in Arc/Arg3.1 translation requires eEF2K, a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent(More)
Prostaglandins play important and diverse roles in the CNS. The first step in prostaglandin synthesis involves enzymatic oxidation of arachidonic acid, which is catalyzed by prostaglandin H(PGH) synthase, also referred to as cyclooxygenase. We have cloned an inducible form of this enzyme from rat brain that is nearly identical to a murine, mitogen-inducible(More)
Diffusion-tensor fiber tracking was used to identify the cores of several long-association fibers, including the anterior (ATR) and posterior (PTR) thalamic radiations, and the uncinate (UNC), superior longitudinal (SLF), inferior longitudinal (ILF), and inferior fronto-occipital (IFO) fasciculi. Tracking results were compared to existing anatomical(More)
OBJECTIVE Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disease that affects approximately 1 in 10,000 live female births and is often caused by mutations in Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2). Despite distinct clinical features, the accumulation of clinical and molecular information in recent years has generated considerable confusion regarding the(More)
The present study extends our previous work on social behavior impairment in young males with fragile X syndrome (FraX). Specifically, we evaluated whether the autistic phenomenon in FraX is expressed as a range of behavioral impairments as in idiopathic autism (Aut). We also examined whether there are behaviors, identified as items of the Autism Diagnostic(More)
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by variable cognitive impairment and behavioral disturbances such as exaggerated fear, anxiety and gaze avoidance. Consistent with this, findings from human brain imaging studies suggest dysfunction of the amygdala. Underlying alterations in amygdala synaptic function in the Fmr1(More)
Postnatal development and adult function of the central nervous system are dependent on the capacity of neurons to effect long-term changes of specific properties in response to neural activity. This neuronal response has been demonstrated to be tightly correlated with the expression of a set of regulatory genes which include transcription factors as well(More)
It is shown that diffusion tensor MR imaging (DTI) can discretely delineate the microstructure of white matter and gray matter in embryonic and early postnatal mouse brains based on the existence and orientation of ordered structures. This order was found not only in white matter but also in the cortical plate and the periventricular zone, which are(More)
Brains from male cases with dyslexia show symmetry of the planum temporale and predominantly left-sided cerebrocortical microdysgenesis. We now report on three women with dyslexia. In all brains, the planum temporale was again symmetrical. Also, in two of the brains, multiple foci of cerebrocortical glial scarring were present. In both women, many of the(More)