Walter E. Alvarez

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Research on geologic carbon sequestration raises questions about potential impacts of subsurface microbiota on carbon cycling and biogeochemistry. Subsurface, high-CO2 systems are poorly biologically characterized, partly because of difficulty accessing high-volume, uncontaminated samples. CO2 -driven Crystal Geyser (CG, Utah, USA), an established geologic(More)
Ž . The term ‘controlled production’ of single-wall nanotubes SWNT implies the ability to control the selectivity towards SWNT by changing catalyst formulations and operating conditions, combined with a quantitative measurement of the SWNT obtained. In this contribution, a significant advancement towards the controlled production of SWNT is reported. A(More)
The disproportionation of CO over Co-Mo/SiO2 catalysts with low Co/Mo ratios results in a high selectivity to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) when the reaction is conducted between 700 and 950 °C in a flow of pure CO at a total pressure between 1 and 5 atm. A detailed characterization involving Raman spectroscopy, temperature-programmed oxidation(More)
A series of analytical techniques have been employed to fully characterize the structure and chemical state of Co–Mo/SiO2 catalysts used for the production of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) by CO disproportionation at 700–850◦C. The state of Co and Mo on a series of silica-supported catalysts was investigated using extended X-ray absorption fine(More)
Existing single-walled carbon nanotube synthesis methods are not easily scalable, operate under severe conditions, and involve high capital and operating costs. The current cost of SWNT is exceedingly high. A catalytic method of synthesis has been developed that has shown potential advantages over the existing methods. This method is based on a catalyst(More)
The catalyst composition and operating conditions for the synthesis of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) from CO decomposition have been systematically varied in order to maximize the selectivity towards SWNT. A simple quantification method based on the standard Temperature Programmed Oxidation (TPO) technique has allowed us to determine the distribution(More)
New constraints on the timing of the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction and the Chicxulub impact, together with a particularly voluminous and apparently brief eruptive pulse toward the end of the “main-stage” eruptions of the Deccan continental fl ood basalt province suggest that these three events may have occurred within less than about a hundred(More)
The five major mass extinctions identified in 1982 by Raup and Sepkoski have expanded to six, with the suggestion that the Permian-Triassic extinction was a double event. Is there a general explanation for great mass extinctions, or can they result from different triggers, or even from internal system instabilities? The two most-discussed candidates for a(More)
Impact ejecta from the Albion Formation are exposed in northern Belize. The ejecta come from the outer portion of the continuous ejecta blanket of the Chicxulub crater, which is located 360 km to the northwest. The basal unit of the Albion Formation is a 3⁄41-m-thick clay and dolomite spheroid bed composed of up to four discrete flows. The clay spheroids(More)
The depositional and diagenetic history of Cretaceous–Tertiary (KT) impact ejecta deposited 360 km from the Chicxulub crater, at Albion Island, Belize, has been investigated using integrated cathodoluminescence and isotopic analyses. A quarry exposes 26 m of Upper Cretaceous Barton Creek Formation dolomitized marine limestone overlain by 16 m of dolomitized(More)