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We examined the appearance of carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity in rat optic nerves (RONs) 5-77 postnatal days of age and correlated the appearance of enzyme activity with structural and physiological alterations. CA activity was nearly absent before 10 days of age and appeared in this CNS white matter tract with a developmental time-course similar to that(More)
In gray matter (GM), anoxia induces prominent extracellular ionic changes that are important in understanding the pathophysiology of this insult. White matter (WM) is also injured by anoxia but the accompanying changes in extracellular ions have not been studied. To provide such information, the time course and magnitude of anoxia-induced changes in(More)
Analysis of neural activity-dependent fluctuations in K+, H+, and ECS dimensions in the developing RON has revealed major changes during the first two to three postnatal weeks. The emergence of the adult ceiling level for evoked extracellular K+ (10 to 12 mM) and significant ECS shrinkage are roughly correlated in time with the proliferation and maturation(More)
To obtain an estimate of how often practicing neurologists in California encounter unexpected strokes, myelopathies, or radiculopathies following chiropractic manipulation, we surveyed each member of the American Academy of Neurology in California and inquired about the number of patients evaluated over the preceding 2 years who suffered a neurologic(More)
Objective: To evaluate the effects of oral delayed-release dimethyl fumarate (DMF; also known as gastro-resistant DMF) on MRI lesion activity and load, atrophy, and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) measures from the Comparator and an Oral Fumarate in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (CONFIRM) study. Methods: CONFIRM was a 2-year, placebo-controlled(More)
A simple procedure for manufacturing Cl-, K+, and pH liquid membrane ion-sensitive microelectrodes is presented in detail. Electrodes suitable for recording from the specimen of interest are back-filled with a small amount of silane solution and heated for 5 min on a hot plate at a temperature between 400 and 500 degrees C, after which they are injected(More)
Double-barreled ion-exchanger based K+-selective microelectrodes (K+ ISMs) of a variety of tip diameters were used to provide an experimental test of predictions that microelectrode tip induced tissue damage influences the magnitude of measured [K+]0 increases. The measured magnitude of stimulation induced [K+]0 rises in the rat optic nerve depended on the(More)
Double-barreled ion-exchanger based K+-selective microelectrodes (K+ ISMs) of a variety of tip diameters were used to study the dependency of ion selectivity upon tip size. The selectivity of K+ ISMs depended on tip size and barrel configuration. Within the range of tip diameters tested (approximately 0.5-6 micron) all K+ ISMs constructed of two barrels(More)
SUMMARY In rat brain, 3H-EKC shows a relative regional distribution of binding which parallels that of 3H-morphine. Dynorphin(1-13) has a pattern similar to morphine and dissimilar to EKC in displacing the three labels. Dynorphin(1-13) is mo~e potent against 3H-morphine than against 3H-EKC across brain regions while B-endorphin competes better against(More)