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We report here that cells co-purifying with mesenchymal stem cells--termed here multipotent adult progenitor cells or MAPCs--differentiate, at the single cell level, not only into mesenchymal cells, but also cells with visceral mesoderm, neuroectoderm and endoderm characteristics in vitro. When injected into an early blastocyst, single MAPCs contribute to(More)
Trinucleotide expansions cause disease by both protein- and RNA-mediated mechanisms. Unexpectedly, we discovered that CAG expansion constructs express homopolymeric polyglutamine, polyalanine, and polyserine proteins in the absence of an ATG start codon. This repeat-associated non-ATG translation (RAN translation) occurs across long, hairpin-forming repeats(More)
An efficient shim system and an optimized localization sequence were used to measure in vivo 1H NMR spectra from cerebral cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellum of C57BL/6 mice at 9.4 T. The combination of automatic first- and second-order shimming (FASTMAP) with strong custom-designed second-order shim coils (shim strength up to 0.04 mT/cm2) was(More)
OBJECTIVE Interleukin-12 (IL-12) may be useful for immunotherapy against gliomas because it can reverse the glioma-induced suppression of T-cell proliferation and interferon-gamma production. We postulated that peripheral infusion of IL-12 along with irradiated tumor cells can lead to immunological rejection of 9L glioma. METHODS 9L gliosarcoma flank(More)
There is now evidence to suggest that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) not only differentiate into mesodermal cells, but can also adopt the fate of endodermal and ectodermal cell types. In this study, we addressed the hypotheses that human MSCs can differentiate into neural cells when implanted in the brain and restore sensorimotor function after(More)
Recent evidence indicates that thrombolysis may be an effective therapy for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. However, the reperfusion of ischemic brain comes with a price. In clinical trials, patients treated with thrombolytic therapy have shown a 6% rate of intracerebral hemorrhage, which was balanced against a 30% improvement in functional outcome(More)
OBJECT Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a malignant tumor of the central nervous system that directly suppresses immunological defenses in vitro and in vivo. The authors used the peripheral delivery of continuously infused granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in the presence of irradiated tumor antigens as a tumor-specific stimulant to(More)
Perinatal ischemia and/or hypoxia in humans are major risk factors for neurologic injury that often manifest as sensorimotor and locomotor deficits throughout development and into maturity. In these studies, we utilized an established model of neonatal ischemic-hypoxia that creates unilateral striatal, cortical, and hippocampal damage (Rice III, J.E.,(More)
When expressed in heterologous cells, the viral FLIP protein (vFLIP) of Kaposi's-sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) has been reported both to block Fas-mediated apoptosis and to activate the NF-kappaB activation pathway by interaction with IkappaB kinase (IKK). In a yeast-two-hybrid screen, we identified IKKgamma as an interacting partner of vFLIP. We(More)
Murine models of lysosomal storage diseases provide an opportunity to evaluate the potential for gene therapy to prevent systemic manifestations of the disease. To determine the potential for treatment of mucopolysaccharidosis type I using a gene delivery approach, a recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector, vTRCA1, transducing the human iduronidase(More)