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BACKGROUND Prior reports on metabolic derangements observed in distance running frequently have small sample sizes, lack prerace laboratory measures, and report sodium as the sole measure. HYPOTHESIS Metabolic abnormalities-hyponatremia, hypokalemia, renal dysfunction, hemoconcentration-are frequent after completing a full or half marathon. Clinically(More)
Four aesthesiometers measuring fingertip sensation were fabricated, two for depth-sense perception and two for two-point discrimination. With the use of 20 normal subjects (10 female and 10 male) and seven subjects with vasospastic disturbance (three female and four male) comparisons were made to determine which of each pair of instruments was the more(More)
It is shown that emotions can usefully be considered as states produced by reinforcing stimuli. The ways in which a wide variety of emotions can be produced, and the functions of emotion, are considered. There is evidence that the amygdala is involved in the formation of stimulus-reinforcement associations, and the orbitofrontal cortex with correcting(More)
BACKGROUND Worldwide maternal perception of fetal movements has been used for many years to evaluate fetal wellbeing. It is intuitively regarded as an expression of fetal well-being as pregnancies in which women consistently report regular fetal movements have very low morbidity and mortality. Conversely, maternal perception of reduced fetal movements is(More)
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