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The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is required, together with CD4, for entry by some isolates of HIV-1, particularly those that emerge late in infection. The use of CXCR4 by these viruses likely has profound effects on viral host range and correlates with the evolution of immunodeficiency. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), the ligand for CXCR4, can inhibit(More)
Cholera toxin (CT) and the Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (LT) are functionally, structurally and immunologically similar enterotoxins. Both toxins cause the elevation of cyclic AMP levels in gut epithelial cells by catalysing the NAD-dependent ADP ribosylation of membrane proteins. Each toxin is composed of two dissimilar subunits. The A subunit has an(More)
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