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Statistical analysis of protein evolution suggests a design for natural proteins in which sparse networks of coevolving amino acids (termed sectors) comprise the essence of three-dimensional structure and function. However, proteins are also subject to pressures deriving from the dynamics of the evolutionary process itself--the ability to tolerate mutation(More)
Despite its importance in biological phenomena, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of amyloid formation remains elusive. Here, we use atomic force microscopy to map the formation of beta2-microglobulin amyloid fibrils with distinct morphologies and persistence lengths, when protein concentration, pH and ionic strength are varied. Using the(More)
Fibrils associated with amyloid disease are molecular assemblies of key biological importance, yet how cells respond to the presence of amyloid remains unclear. Cellular responses may not only depend on the chemical composition or molecular properties of the amyloid fibrils, but their physical attributes such as length, width, or surface area may also play(More)
Amyloid fibrils are ordered polymers in which constituent polypeptides adopt a non-native fold. Despite their importance in degenerative human diseases, the overall structure of amyloid fibrils remains unknown. High-resolution studies of model peptide assemblies have identified residues forming cross-beta-strands and have revealed some details of local(More)
Supplementary figure 1 Comparison of wild-type E 2 m fibrils formed at pH 7 and pH 2.5. (a) Twisted fibrils formed at pH 7 undergo extensive lateral bundling. Scale bar, 100 nm. (b) Enlargement of a pH 7 fibril, showing features of the subunit repeat along the protofilaments (red stripes). (c) Segment of a fibril formed at pH 2.5. Scale bar for b and c, 50(More)
The atomic force microscope (AFM) is a versatile instrument that can be used to image biological samples at nanometre resolution as well as to measure inter and intra-molecular forces in air and liquid environments. This review summarises the use of AFM applied to protein and peptide self-assembly systems involved in amyloid formation. The technical(More)
Oscillatory shear rheometry has been used to study the gelation of beta-lactoglobulin at ambient in 50% v/v trifluoroethanol (TFE)/pH 7 aqueous buffer and in 50% v/v ethanol (EtOH)/water at pH 2. In contrast to what was found on heating aqueous solutions at pH 2 (Part 2 of this series), a more expected "chemical gelation"-like profile was found with modulus(More)
Dialysis related amyloidosis is a serious complication of long-term hemodialysis in which beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)m) forms amyloid fibrils that deposit predominantly in cartilaginous tissues. How these fibrils form in vivo, however, is poorly understood. Here we perform a systematic investigation into the role of macrophages in the formation and(More)
Deriving a complete understanding of protein self-association into amyloid fibrils across multiple distance and time scales is an enormous challenge. At small length scales, a detailed description of the partially folded protein ensemble that participates in self-assembly remains obscure. At larger length scales, amyloid fibrils are often heterogeneous, can(More)
Amyloid fibrils have historically been characterized by diagnostic dye-binding assays, their fibrillar morphology, and a "cross-beta" x-ray diffraction pattern. Whereas the latter demonstrates that amyloid fibrils have a common beta-sheet core structure, they display a substantial degree of morphological variation. One striking example is the remarkable(More)