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Corn seedlings release large amounts of terpenoid volatiles after they have been fed upon by caterpillars. Artificially damaged seedlings do not release these volatiles in significant amounts unless oral secretions from the caterpillars are applied to the damaged sites. Undamaged leaves, whether or not they are treated with oral secretions, do not release(More)
Parasitic and predatory arthropods often prevent plants from being severely damaged by killing herbivores as they feed on the plants. Recent studies show that a variety of plants, when injured by herbivores, emit chemical signals that guide natural enemies to the herbivores. It is unlikely that herbivore-damaged plants initiate the production of chemicals(More)
This paper demonstrates the necessity to consider plants as an essential and interactive component of biological control practices. Plants not only possess direct chemical and morphological defenses against herbivores but also benefit from indirect defenses provided by parasitoids and predators, which use herbivores as hosts or prey. Plants play an active(More)
Heliothis zea (Boddie) larvae fed cowpea seedlings produced volatile semiochemicals to whichMicroplitis demolitor Wilkinson responded in a wind tunnel. However, mostM. demolitor females reared fromH. zea larvae fed an artificial diet were not responsive at emergence to the same volatile semiochemicals. A preflight contact with frass fromH. zea fed cowpea(More)
Rearing the parasitoidM. croceipes on hosts fed cowpea-seedling leaves instead of artificial diet increased the percentage of oriented flights to odors of a cowpea seedling-H. zea complex in a flight tunnel. However, the increase in response was much stronger after adult females had searched a fresh plant-host complex just prior to a test. The host plant(More)
A fundamental shift to a total system approach for crop protection is urgently needed to resolve escalating economic and environmental consequences of combating agricultural pests. Pest management strategies have long been dominated by quests for "silver bullet" products to control pest outbreaks. However, managing undesired variables in ecosystems is(More)
Arthropods that prey on or parasitize other arthropods frequently employ those chemical cues that reliably indicate the presence of their prey or hosts. Eavesdropping on the sex pheromone signals emitted to attract mates allows many predators and parasitoids to find and attack adult insects. The sex pheromones are also useful signals for egg parasitoids(More)
Parasitoids exploit numerous chemical cues to locate hosts and food. Whether they detect and learn chemicals foreign to their natural history has not been explored. We show that the parasitoid Microplitis croceipes can associate, with food or hosts, widely different chemicals outside their natural foraging encounters. When learned chemicals are subsequently(More)
An increase in the release of volatile compounds by plants in response to insect feeding is triggered by interaction of elicitors in the oral secretions of insect herbivores with damaged plant tissues. This herbivore damage triggers de novo biosynthesis of volatile plant metabolites derived from several different biochemical pathways. Natural enemies of(More)