Wallace Joe Lewis

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Corn seedlings release large amounts of terpenoid volatiles after they have been fed upon by caterpillars. Artificially damaged seedlings do not release these volatiles in significant amounts unless oral secretions from the caterpillars are applied to the damaged sites. Undamaged leaves, whether or not they are treated with oral secretions, do not release(More)
Parasitic and predatory arthropods often prevent plants from being severely damaged by killing herbivores as they feed on the plants. Recent studies show that a variety of plants, when injured by herbivores, emit chemical signals that guide natural enemies to the herbivores. It is unlikely that herbivore-damaged plants initiate the production of chemicals(More)
b t T a e t n fi b This paper demonstrates the necessity to consider lants as an essential and interactive component of iological control practices. Plants not only possess irect chemical and morphological defenses against erbivores but also benefit from indirect defenses rovided by parasitoids and predators, which use erbivores as hosts or prey. Plants(More)
Trichogramma pretiosum Riley females exhibit success-motivated searching after oviposition. The stimulatory effect of contact with host eggs makes host-egg density an important factor in determining the appropriate strategy for behavioral manipulation, using kairomones, that simulate host seeking, in biological control programs. Host eggs can be used, in(More)
Odor-mediated host-searching by femaleMicroplitis croceipes, a braconid endoparasitoid of larvalHeliothis species, was studied in a flight tunnel. Volatiles emitted by third-instarH. zea feeding on cowpea seedling leaves were released and carried with the wind, resulting either in an irregularly shaped plume, or injected with high velocity, resulting in a(More)
A fundamental shift to a total system approach for crop protection is urgently needed to resolve escalating economic and environmental consequences of combating agricultural pests. Pest management strategies have long been dominated by quests for "silver bullet" products to control pest outbreaks. However, managing undesired variables in ecosystems is(More)
In theory, the degree of specificity of the signals a parasitoid species needs to successfully locate its host correlates with its level of specialization. We examined this question by comparing the foraging strategies of two parasitoids that differ in their host ranges. In wind-tunnel experiments, we investigated how systemically released herbivore-induced(More)
Wind tunnel experiments were conducted to determine roles of odor learning in food foraging of the larval parasitoid,Microplitis croceipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Females that had neither fed on sucrose water nor experienced any odor and females that had experienced an odor without feeding failed to respond to any odors in a wind tunnel. Most of the(More)
Cotton plants under herbivore attack release volatile semiochemicals that attract natural enemies of the herbivores to the damaged plant. The volatiles released in response to herbivory are not only released from the damaged leaves but from the entire cotton plant. We found that cotton plants that released myrcene, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, (E)-β-ocimene,(More)