Walid D. Fakhouri

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Systems biology seeks a genomic-level interpretation of transcriptional regulatory information represented by patterns of protein-binding sites. Obtaining this information without direct experimentation is challenging; minor alterations in binding sites can have profound effects on gene expression, and underlie important aspects of disease and evolution.(More)
Although genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for nonsyndromic orofacial clefts have identified multiple strongly associated regions, the causal variants are unknown. To address this, we selected 13 regions from GWASs and other studies, performed targeted sequencing in 1,409 Asian and European trios, and carried out a series of statistical and functional(More)
BACKGROUND Atrazine (ATR), a commonly used herbicide in the United States, is widely distributed in water and soil because of its mobility through ecosystems and its persistence in the environment. ATR has been associated with defects in sexual development in animals, but studies on mammalian systems have failed to clearly identify a cellular target. (More)
BACKGROUND DNA variation in Interferon Regulatory Factor 6 (IRF6) contributes risk for orofacial clefting, including a common DNA variant rs642961. This DNA variant is located in a multi-species conserved sequence that is 9.7 kb upstream from the IRF6 transcriptional start site (MCS9.7). The MCS9.7 element was shown to possess enhancer activity that(More)
Objective To gather data from relevant experimental and observational studies to determine the relationship between micrognathia and cleft palate. The goal is to raise awareness and motivate clinicians to consider the cause and effect relationship when confronted with patients with cleft palate, even if there is no clearly noticeable mandibular abnormality.(More)
DNA variation in Interferon Regulatory Factor 6 (IRF6) causes Van der Woude syndrome (VWS), the most common syndromic form of cleft lip and palate (CLP). However, an etiologic variant in IRF6 has been found in only 70% of VWS families. To test whether DNA variants in regulatory elements cause VWS, we sequenced three conserved elements near IRF6 in 70 VWS(More)
Correlation of quantities of transcriptional activators and repressors with the mRNA output of target genes is a central issue for modeling gene regulation. In multicellular organisms, both spatial and temporal differences in gene expression must be taken into account; this can be achieved by use of in situ hybridization followed by confocal laser scanning(More)
Previous evidence from tooth agenesis studies suggested IRF6 and TGFA interact. Since tooth agenesis is commonly found in individuals with cleft lip/palate (CL/P), we used four large cohorts to evaluate if IRF6 and TGFA interaction contributes to CL/P. Markers within and flanking IRF6 and TGFA genes were tested using Taqman or SYBR green chemistries for(More)
Non-coding DNA variations play a critical role in increasing the risk for development of common complex diseases, and account for the majority of SNPs highly associated with cancer. However, it remains a challenge to identify etiologic variants and to predict their pathological effects on target gene expression for clinical purposes. Cis-overlapping motifs(More)
Pseudomonas fluorescens strain G308 isolated from barley leaves produces a novel antibiotic substance that was purified by preparative TLC and HPLC and identified as N-mercapto-4-formylcarbostyril (Cbs) by LC/DAD, IR, LC-ES(+)/MS, LC-ES(-)/MS, GC-EI/MS, LC-HRES(+)/MS, mass isotope ratios analysis, 1H NMR and 13C NMR analysis. The purified new antibiotic(More)