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Stem cells are pivotal for development and tissue homeostasis of multicellular animals, and the quest for a gene toolkit associated with the emergence of stem cells in a common ancestor of all metazoans remains a major challenge for evolutionary biology. We reconstructed the conserved gene repertoire of animal stem cells by transcriptomic profiling of(More)
In order to assess the degradability of plastics in solid waste disposal landfill sites, microbial populations capable of degrading five kinds of plastic-constituting polymers, poly epsilon-caprolactone (PCL), polylactic acid (PLA), polyethylene glycol (PEG), poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and cellulose acetate (CA), in a sea-based solid waste disposal(More)
Cellulose acetate (CA)-degrading bacteria were isolated from samples obtained from environments at a population size of 6.7 x 10(1) to 1.0 x 10(8) halo-forming cfu/ml-water or g-solid, suggesting their ubiquitous presence. The classification of 35 isolated strains of CA-degrading bacteria into 15 genera indicates that CA-degrading activity is over a wide(More)
Animal bodies are shaped by skeletons, which are built inside the body by biomineralization of condensed mesenchymal cells in vertebrates [1, 2] and echinoderms [3, 4], or outside the body by apical secretion of extracellular matrices by epidermal cell layers in arthropods [5]. In each case, the skeletons' shapes are a direct reflection of the pattern of(More)
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