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Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are sustained in a specific microenvironment known as the stem cell niche. Mammalian HSCs are kept quiescent in the endosteal niche, a hypoxic zone of the bone marrow (BM). In this study, we show that normal HSCs maintain intracellular hypoxia and stabilize hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) protein. In(More)
Mammalian spermatogenesis is maintained by stem cell capacity within undifferentiated spermatogonial subpopulation. Here, using a combination of surface markers, we describe a purification method for undifferentiated spermatogonia. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that this population is composed of Plzf-positive cells and exhibits quiescence and the side(More)
A small GTPase, Rho, plays key roles in cell adhesion, motility, and contraction after stimulation. Among Rho effectors isolated, the family of Rho-associated coiled-coil-forming protein kinases (ROCK) is implicated in Rho-mediated cell adhesion and smooth muscle contraction. The effect of a specific inhibitor of ROCK, Y-27632, was evaluated in a murine(More)
BACKGROUND The diagnosis of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is difficult because it requires microscopic examination to identify pneumocystis from induced sputum or BAL fluid. STUDY OBJECTIVE To evaluate the usefulness of four serum markers-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), (1-->3) beta-D-glucan (beta-D-glucan), KL-6, and C-reactive protein (CRP)-in the diagnosis(More)
BACKGROUND In the cochlea, patterning of the organ of Corti is tightly regulated to produce a single row of sound-detecting inner hair cells and three rows of outer hair cells, which amplify and refine the signal. The recently identified R-Spondin family of signaling molecules usually act as co-activators of Wnt signaling; it is thought that they regulate(More)
CD14 functions as a cell surface receptor for endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) and is thought to have an essential role in innate immune responses to infection. Previous studies have revealed attenuation of the systemic response after sepsis by blocking CD14. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that CD14 blockade protects against inflammatory(More)
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory diseases, but its role in bleomycin (BLM)-induced lung injury and subsequent fibrotic changes remains to be determined. We evaluated the role of IL-6 in the lung inflammatory changes induced by BLM using wild-type (WT) and IL-6-deficient (IL-6(-/-)) mice. The mice were(More)
RATIONALE The interaction of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and its ligands often leads to inflammatory processes or tissue injury, although the effect of the blockade of RAGE signaling on lung injury remains to be investigated. OBJECTIVES Using a murine model of lung injury induced by intratracheal lipopolysaccharide (LPS), we(More)
We hypothesized that the extent of acute lung injury (ALI) caused by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is modified with its initial passage through the liver. We tested this hypothesis by administering LPS, 5 mg/kg, or saline to 120 male Wistar rats via the portal vein (PV) or the inferior vena cava (IVC) over 1 h. Four experimental groups of rats were administered(More)