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We investigated two solutions for numerical (2D) tabular data discovery and overview for visually impaired and blind users. One involved accessing information in tables (26 rows x 10 columns containing integers between and including 0 and 100) by this target user group using both speech and non-speech sounds. The other involved accessing similar information(More)
Haptic technologies are thought to have the potential to help blind individuals overcome the challenges experienced when accessing the Web. This paper proposes a structured participatory-based approach for developing targeted haptic sensations for purposes of web page exploration, and reports preliminary results showing how HTML elements can be represented(More)
The research presented here addresses how line graphs can be made accessible to blind and visually impaired people through the use of non-speech audio. Previous research has focused on the sonification of a single data series. This paper describes a method of sonifying two data series, and the design of two modes (parallel mode and serial mode) for browsing(More)
In this paper we discuss the design of computer-based haptic graphs for blind and visually impaired people with the support of our preliminary experimental results. Since visual impairment makes data visualisation techniques inappropriate for blind people, we are developing a system which can make graphs accessible through haptic and audio media. The(More)
This paper introduces the development of a multimodal data visualisation system and its evaluations. This system is designed to improve blind and visually impaired people's access to graphs and tables. Force feedback, synthesized speech and non-speech audio are utilised to present graphical data to blind people. Through the combination of haptic and audio(More)
This paper describes the development and evaluation of Web-based multimodal graphs designed for visually impaired and blind people. The information in the graphs is conveyed to visually impaired people through haptic and audio channels. The motivation of this work is to address problems faced by visually impaired people in accessing graphical information on(More)
This paper describes the development and evaluation of a haptic interface designed to provide access to line graphs for bind or visually impaired people. Computer-generated line graphs can be felt by users through the sense of touch produced by a PHANToM force feedback device. Experiments have been conducted to test the effectiveness of this interface with(More)
Making a web browser haptically accessible, makes it possible also for visually impaired persons to access graphical properties such as the layout of a web browser. With haptic interaction, it will also be possible to access 3D objects (VRML or X3D files) over the internet. In the present short paper the design of such a system is described.