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In this paper we discuss the design of computer-based haptic graphs for blind and visually impaired people with the support of our preliminary experimental results. Since visual impairment makes data visualisation techniques inappropriate for blind people, we are developing a system which can make graphs accessible through haptic and audio media. The(More)
This paper introduces the development of a multimodal data visualisation system and its evaluations. This system is designed to improve blind and visually impaired people's access to graphs and tables. Force feedback, synthesized speech and non-speech audio are utilised to present graphical data to blind people. Through the combination of haptic and audio(More)
Haptic technologies are thought to have the potential to help blind individuals overcome the challenges experienced when accessing the Web. This paper proposes a structured participatory-based approach for developing targeted haptic sensations for purposes of web page exploration, and reports preliminary results showing how HTML elements can be represented(More)
Stand-alone virtual environments (VEs) using haptic devices have proved useful for assembly/disassembly simulation of mechanical components. Nowadays, collabora-tive haptic virtual environments (CHVEs) are also emerging. A new peer-to-peer collaborative haptic assembly simulator (CHAS) has been developed whereby two users can simultaneously carry out(More)
UNLABELLED INTRODUCTION Optic neuritis, although uncommon, can be the initial presentation of Sjögren's syndrome. Coexisting Sjögren's syndrome has also been reported with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. This case report highlights the association between the two diseases and the importance of rheumatological and neurological evaluations in(More)
Line graphs stand as an established information visualisation and analysis technique taught at various levels of difficulty according to standard Mathematics curricula. It has been argued that blind individuals cannot use line graphs as a visualisation and analytic tool because they currently primarily exist in the visual medium. The research described in(More)
This paper describes the evaluation of two multimodal interfaces designed to provide visually impaired people with access to various types of graphs. The interfaces consist of audio and haptics which is rendered on commercially available force feedback devices. Usability of force feedback devices in real applications is seldom investigated and compared.(More)