Learn More
We describe a technique for rapid labeling of a large number of cells in the nervous system with many different colors. By delivering lipophilic dye-coated particles to neuronal preparations with a "gene gun," individual neurons and glia whose membranes are contacted by the particles are quickly labeled. Using particles that are each coated with different(More)
Even before birth and the onset of sensory experience, neural activity plays an important role in shaping the vertebrate nervous system. In the embryonic chick visual system, activity in the retina before vision has been implicated in the refinement of retinotopic maps, the elimination of transient projections, and the survival of a full complement of(More)
We demonstrate that within the intact and spontaneously active retina, dendritic processes of ganglion cells exhibit rapid and extensive movements during the period of synaptogenesis. Marked restructuring occurs in seconds, but structural changes are relatively balanced across the dendritic arbor, maintaining overall arbor size and complexity over hours.(More)
Synchronized spontaneous rhythmic activity is a feature common to many parts of the developing nervous system. In the early visual system, before vision, developing circuits in the retina generate synchronized patterns of bursting activity that contain information useful for patterning connections between retinal ganglion cells and their central targets.(More)
Major technical advances in the imaging of live cells have led to a recent flurry of studies demonstrating how dendrites remodel dynamically during development. Taken together with our current understanding of axonal development, these studies help provide a more unified picture of how neural circuits might be formed altered or maintained throughout life.
Microglia, the primary resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS), exhibit dynamic behavior involving rapid process motility and cellular migration that is thought to underlie key functions of immune surveillance and tissue repair. Although age-related changes in microglial activation have been implicated in the pathogenesis of(More)
PURPOSE Microglia and Müller cells are prominent participants in retinal responses to injury and disease that shape eventual tissue adaptation or damage. This investigation examined how microglia and Müller cells interact with each other following initial microglial activation. METHODS Mouse Müller cells were cultured alone, or co-cultured with activated(More)
PURPOSE Microglia in the central nervous system display a marked structural dynamism in their processes in the resting state. This dynamic behavior, which may play a constitutive surveying role in the uninjured neural parenchyma, is also highly responsive to tissue injury. The role of CX3CR1, a chemokine receptor expressed in microglia, in regulating(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate macular thickness and volume measurements and their intrasession repeatability in two optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems: the Stratus OCT, a time domain system, and the Cirrus HD-OCT, a spectral domain system (both by Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc., Dublin, CA), in the context of diabetic macular edema (DME). METHODS Thirty-three(More)
Age-related macular degeneration is an outer retinal disease that involves aging and immune dysfunction. In the aging retina, microglia aggregate in the outer retina and acquire intracellular autofluorescent lipofuscin deposits. In this study, we investigated whether accumulation of A2E, a key bisretinoid constituent of ocular lipofuscin, alters the(More)