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This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the rate of urea synthesis in Protopterus aethiopicus was up-regulated to detoxify ammonia during the initial phase of aestivation in air (day 1-day 12), and that a profound suppression of ammonia production occurred at a later phase of aestivation (day 35-day 46) which eliminated the need to sustain the(More)
This study aimed to (1) determine if ammonia (as NH(4)Cl) injected intra-peritoneally into the ureogenic slender African lungfish, Protopterus dolloi, was excreted directly rather than being converted to urea; (2) examine if injected urea was retained in this lungfish, leading to decreases in liver arginine and brain tryptophan levels, as observed during(More)
The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the type of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase (CPS) present, and the compartmentalization of arginase, in the livers of the African lungfishes, Protopterus aethiopicus and Protopterus annectens, and (2) to elucidate if these two lungfishes were capable of increasing the rates of urea synthesis and capacities(More)
The white-edge freshwater whip ray Himantura signifer can survive in freshwater (0.7 per thousand ) indefinitely or in brackish water (20 per thousand ) for at least two weeks in the laboratory. In freshwater, the blood plasma was maintained hyperosmotic to that of the external medium. There was approximately 44 mmol l(-1) of urea in the plasma, with the(More)
This study aimed to elucidate whether exposure to a sublethal concentration (8mmoll(-1)) of NH(4)Cl (pH 7.0) for 12 or 48h would induce oxidative stress in gills and brain of the mudskipper Boleophthalmus boddarti which has high tolerance of environmental and brain ammonia. The gills of B. boddarti experienced a transient oxidative stress after 12h of(More)
The white-edge freshwater whip ray Himantura signifer is ammonotelic in freshwater, but retains the capacities of urea synthesis and ureosmotic osmoregulation to survive in brackish water. The first objective of this study was to examine whether exposure to brackish water would lead to increases in food intake, and/or conservation of nitrogen in H. signifer(More)
This study aimed to identify estivation-specific gene clusters through the determination of differential gene expressions in the liver of Protopterus annectens after 6 days of estivation in a mucus cocoon in air (normoxia) using suppression subtractive hybridization polymerase chain reaction. Our results demonstrated that 6 days of estivation in normoxia(More)
This study aimed to obtain the full sequence of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III (cps III) from, and to determine the mRNA expression of cps III in, the liver of P. annectens during aestivation in air, hypoxia or mud, or exposure to environmental ammonia (100 mmol l−1 NH4Cl). The complete coding cDNA sequence of cps III from the liver of P. annectens(More)
This study aimed to examine whether the stenohaline freshwater stingray, Potamotrygon motoro, which lacks a functional ornithine-urea cycle, would up-regulate glutamine synthetase (GS) activity and protein abundance, and accumulate glutamine during a progressive transfer from freshwater to brackish (15 per thousand) water with daily feeding. Our results(More)
Obesity and related metabolic disorders are prevalent health issues in modern society and are commonly attributed to lifestyle and dietary factors. However, the mechanisms by which environmental factors modulate the physiological systems that control weight regulation and the aetiology of metabolic disorders, which manifest in adult life, may have their(More)