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The genome of the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi B31, the aetiologic agent of Lyme disease, contains a linear chromosome of 910,725 base pairs and at least 17 linear and circular plasmids with a combined size of more than 533,000 base pairs. The chromosome contains 853 genes encoding a basic set of proteins for DNA replication, transcription, translation,(More)
We have determined that Borrelia burgdorferi strain B31 MI carries 21 extrachromosomal DNA elements, the largest number known for any bacterium. Among these are 12 linear and nine circular plasmids, whose sequences total 610 694 bp. We report here the nucleotide sequence of three linear and seven circular plasmids (comprising 290 546 bp) in this infectious(More)
Bacteriophage T4 DNA topoisomerase gene 60 contains a 50 nucleotide untranslated region within the coding sequence of its mRNA. Translational bypass of this sequence by elongating ribosomes has been postulated for the mode of synthesis of an 18 kd polypeptide specified by the split coding segments. Ribosome bypass of the untranslated region also occurs when(More)
Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne human illness in North America. In order to understand the molecular pathogenesis, natural diversity, population structure and epizootic spread of the North American Lyme agent, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, a much better understanding of the natural diversity of its genome will be required. Towards this end(More)
Half the ribosomes translating the mRNA for phage T4 gene 60 topoisomerase subunit bypass a 50 nucleotide coding gap between codons 46 and 47. The pairing of codon 46 with its cognate peptidyl-tRNA anticodon dissociates, and following mRNA slippage, peptidyl-tRNA re-pairs to mRNA at a matched triplet 5' adjacent to codon 47, where translation resumes. Here,(More)
We have isolated and characterized mutants of Borrelia burgdorferi that are resistant to the antibiotic coumermycin A1, which targets the B subunit of DNA gyrase. Mutants had either 100- or 300-fold higher resistance to coumermycin A1 than wild-type B. burgdorferi. In each case, a single point mutation in the gyrB gene converted Arg-133 to Gly or Ile.(More)
A 50-nucleotide untranslated region is shown to be present within the coding sequence of Escherichia coli bacteriophage T4 gene 60, which encodes one of the subunits for its type II DNA topoisomerase. This interruption is part of the transcribed messenger RNA and appears not to be removed before translation. Thus, the usual colinearity between messenger RNA(More)
A physical map of the 952 kbp chromosome of Borrelia burgdorferi Sh-2-82 has been constructed. Eighty-three intervals on the chromosome, defined by the cleavage sites of 15 restriction enzymes, are delineated. The intervals vary in size from 96 kbp to a few hundred bp, with an average size of 11.5 kbp. A striking feature of the map is its linearity; no(More)
Two morphologically distinct and physically separable defective phages have been found in Bacillus licheniformis NRS 243 after induction by mitomycin C. One of them (PBLB) is similar to the defective phage PBSX of B. subtilis, which has a density of 1.373 g/cm(3) in CsCl and a sedimentation coefficient of 160S. PBLB incorporates into its head mainly(More)