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Twenty different lines of polyphasic evidence obtained from tRNA and protein sequences, anticodon usages, gene contents, metabolism and geochemistry have made possible the identification of a Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA) phylogenetically located proximal to the hyperthermophilic methanogenic archaeon Methanopyrus. Combined with analysis of(More)
To understand the nature and evolution of LUCA, or Last Universal Common Ancestor, the minimum genome of LUCA has been identified based on the genes common to the eight primitive Euryarchaea and Crenarchaea species Methanopyrus kandleri, Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicum, Methanococcus jannaschii, Pyrococcus abyssi, Pyrococcus furiosus, Pyrococcus(More)
The genetic code has been unchanging for some three billion years in its canonical ensemble of encoded amino acids, as indicated by the universal adoption of this ensemble by all known organisms. Code mutations beginning with the encoding of 4-fluoro-Trp by Bacillus subtilis, initially replacing and eventually displacing Trp from the ensemble, first(More)
The 20 canonical amino acids of the genetic code have been invariant over 3 billion years of biological evolution. Although various aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases can charge their cognate tRNAs with amino acid analogs, there has been no known displacement of any canonical amino acid from the code. Experimental departure from this universal protein alphabet(More)
The origins of the components of genetic coding are examined in the present study. Genetic information arose from replicator induction by metabolite in accordance with the metabolic expansion law. Messenger RNA and transfer RNA stemmed from a template for binding the aminoacyl-RNA synthetase ribozymes employed to synthesize peptide prosthetic groups on RNAs(More)
Substance dependence is a frequently observed comorbid disorder in schizophrenia, but little is known about genetic factors possibly shared between the two psychotic disorders. GABRB2, a schizophrenia candidate gene coding for GABAA receptor β2 subunit, is examined for possible association with heroin dependence in Han Chinese population. Four single(More)
AluScan combines inter-Alu PCR using multiple Alu-based primers with opposite orientations and next-generation sequencing to capture a huge number of Alu-proximal genomic sequences for investigation. Its requirement of only sub-microgram quantities of DNA facilitates the examination of large numbers of samples. However, the special features of AluScan data(More)
The presence of loss-of-heterozygosity (LOH) mutations in cancer cell genomes is commonly encountered. Moreover, the occurrences of LOHs in tumor suppressor genes play important roles in oncogenesis. However, because the causative mechanisms underlying LOH mutations in cancer cells yet remain to be elucidated, enquiry into the nature of these mechanisms(More)
Rapid detection of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis is critical to the effective early treatment and prevention of the transmission of tuberculosis. However, conventional drug susceptibility tests for M. tuberculosis require up to several weeks. In the present study, the One Label Extension genotyping method was adapted for rapid detection of drug(More)
Trichloroethylene (TCE) induced occupational medicamentosa-like dermatitis (OMDT) is a systemic skin disorder accompanied by liver dysfunction in workers occupationally exposed to TCE. The present study employed massive parallel sequencing by AluScan developed by us to determine genetic variations associated with sensitivity to TCE exposure. With coverage(More)
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