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The accumulation of lysosomes and their hydrolases within neurons is a well-established neuropathologic feature of Alzheimer disease (AD). Here we show that lysosomal pathology in AD brain involves extensive alterations of macroautophagy, an inducible pathway for the turnover of intracellular constituents, including organelles. Using immunogold labeling(More)
Macroautophagy, which is a lysosomal pathway for the turnover of organelles and long-lived proteins, is a key determinant of cell survival and longevity. In this study, we show that neuronal macroautophagy is induced early in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and before beta-amyloid (Abeta) deposits extracellularly in the presenilin (PS) 1/Abeta precursor protein(More)
Macroautophagy is a lysosomal degradative pathway essential for neuron survival. Here, we show that macroautophagy requires the Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related protein presenilin-1 (PS1). In PS1 null blastocysts, neurons from mice hypomorphic for PS1 or conditionally depleted of PS1, substrate proteolysis and autophagosome clearance during macroautophagy(More)
Macroautophagy, a major pathway for organelle and protein turnover, has been implicated in the neurodegeneration of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The basis for the profuse accumulation of autophagic vacuoles (AVs) in affected neurons of the AD brain, however, is unknown. In this study, we show that constitutive macroautophagy in primary cortical neurons is(More)
Presenilin-1 (PS1) and -2 (PS2), which when mutated cause familial Alzheimer disease, have been localized to numerous compartments of the cell, including the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, nuclear envelope, endosomes, lysosomes, the plasma membrane, and mitochondria. Using three complementary approaches, subcellular fractionation, gamma-secretase activity(More)
In Alzheimer's disease (AD), the neuropathologic hallmarks of beta-amyloid deposition and neurofibrillary degeneration are associated with early and progressive pathology of the endosomal-lysosomal system. Abnormalities of autophagy, a major pathway to lysosomes for protein and organelle turnover, include marked accumulations of autophagy-related vesicular(More)
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5) has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of p25, an activator of cdk5, led to increased levels of BACE1 mRNA and protein in vitro and in vivo. A p25/cdk5 responsive region containing multiple sites for signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT1/3) was(More)
More than 30 neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer disease (AD), frontotemporal lobe dementia (FTD), and some forms of Parkinson disease (PD) are characterized by the accumulation of an aggregated form of the microtubule-binding protein tau in neurites and as intracellular lesions called neurofibrillary tangles. Diseases with abnormal tau as part(More)
Hyperphosphorylated tau is the major component of paired helical filaments in neurofibrillary tangles found in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains, and tau hyperphosphorylation is thought to be a critical event in the pathogenesis of the disease. The large majority of AD cases is late onset and sporadic in origin, with aging as the most important risk factor.(More)
In the last decade, multiple lines of transgenic APP overexpressing mice have been created that recapitulate certain aspects of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, none of the previously reported transgenic APP overexpressing rat models developed AD-like beta-amyloid (Abeta) deposits, or age-related learning and memory deficits. In the present study, we have(More)