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The accumulation of lysosomes and their hydrolases within neurons is a well-established neuropathologic feature of Alzheimer disease (AD). Here we show that lysosomal pathology in AD brain involves extensive alterations of macroautophagy, an inducible pathway for the turnover of intracellular constituents, including organelles. Using immunogold labeling(More)
Macroautophagy is a lysosomal degradative pathway essential for neuron survival. Here, we show that macroautophagy requires the Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related protein presenilin-1 (PS1). In PS1 null blastocysts, neurons from mice hypomorphic for PS1 or conditionally depleted of PS1, substrate proteolysis and autophagosome clearance during macroautophagy(More)
Macroautophagy, which is a lysosomal pathway for the turnover of organelles and long-lived proteins, is a key determinant of cell survival and longevity. In this study, we show that neuronal macroautophagy is induced early in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and before beta-amyloid (Abeta) deposits extracellularly in the presenilin (PS) 1/Abeta precursor protein(More)
Macroautophagy, a major pathway for organelle and protein turnover, has been implicated in the neurodegeneration of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The basis for the profuse accumulation of autophagic vacuoles (AVs) in affected neurons of the AD brain, however, is unknown. In this study, we show that constitutive macroautophagy in primary cortical neurons is(More)
In Alzheimer's disease (AD), the neuropathologic hallmarks of beta-amyloid deposition and neurofibrillary degeneration are associated with early and progressive pathology of the endosomal-lysosomal system. Abnormalities of autophagy, a major pathway to lysosomes for protein and organelle turnover, include marked accumulations of autophagy-related vesicular(More)
Mutations of GBA1, the gene encoding glucocerebrosidase, represent a common genetic risk factor for developing the synucleinopathies Parkinson disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies. PD patients with or without GBA1 mutations also exhibit lower enzymatic levels of glucocerebrosidase in the central nervous system (CNS), suggesting a possible link between(More)
In the last decade, multiple lines of transgenic APP overexpressing mice have been created that recapitulate certain aspects of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, none of the previously reported transgenic APP overexpressing rat models developed AD-like beta-amyloid (Abeta) deposits, or age-related learning and memory deficits. In the present study, we have(More)
Recent evidence suggests that one mechanism whereby cytotoxic drugs, such as doxorubicin, kill tumors is the induction or up-regulation of Fas ligand (FasL) expression on the tumor cell surface. The ensuing engagement of Fas by FasL on adjacent cells leads to apoptosis. However, despite cytotoxic drug-induced FasL expression, Fas-sensitive tumors frequently(More)
Presenilin-1 (PS1) and -2 (PS2), which when mutated cause familial Alzheimer disease, have been localized to numerous compartments of the cell, including the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, nuclear envelope, endosomes, lysosomes, the plasma membrane, and mitochondria. Using three complementary approaches, subcellular fractionation, gamma-secretase activity(More)
Both in vivo and in vitro investigations point to an important role for the immune system in the development of age-related neurodegeneration. Microglia isolated from aged female F344 rats, 18-20 months, show a higher percentage of cells with an ameboid morphology indicative of activation, whereas, astrocytes had a quiescent morphology. The ability of(More)