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We present EMAN (Electron Micrograph ANalysis), a software package for performing semiautomated single-particle reconstructions from transmission electron micrographs. The goal of this project is to provide software capable of performing single-particle reconstructions beyond 10 A as such high-resolution data become available. A complete single-particle(More)
Proteins can exist in a trinity of structures: the ordered state, the molten globule, and the random coil. The five following examples suggest that native protein structure can correspond to any of the three states (not just the ordered state) and that protein function can arise from any of the three states and their transitions. (1) In a process that(More)
Due to large sizes and complex nature, few large macromolecular complexes have been solved to atomic resolution. This has lead to an under-representation of these structures, which are composed of novel and/or homologous folds, in the library of known structures and folds. While it is often difficult to achieve a high-resolution model for these structures,(More)
Molecular chaperones assist protein folding by facilitating their "forward" folding and preventing aggregation. However, once aggregates have formed, these chaperones cannot facilitate protein disaggregation. Bacterial ClpB and its eukaryotic homolog Hsp104 are essential proteins of the heat-shock response, which have the remarkable capacity to rescue(More)
The three-dimensional structure of rice dwarf virus was determined to 6.8 A resolution by single particle electron cryomicroscopy. By integrating the structural analysis with bioinformatics, the folds of the proteins in the double-shelled capsid were derived. In the outer shell protein, the uniquely orientated upper and lower domains are composed of similar(More)
Cofilin is an actin depolymerizing protein found widely distributed in animals and plants. We have used electron cryomicroscopy and helical reconstruction to identify its binding site on actin filaments. Cofilin binds filamentous (F)-actin cooperatively by bridging two longitudinally associated actin subunits. The binding site is centered axially at(More)
Synaptotagmin acts as a Ca(2+) sensor in neurotransmitter release through its two C(2) domains. Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipid binding is key for synaptotagmin function, but it is unclear how this activity cooperates with the SNARE complex involved in release or why Ca(2+) binding to the C(2)B domain is more crucial for release than Ca(2+) binding to the(More)
The critical viral components for packaging DNA, recognizing and binding to host cells, and injecting the condensed DNA into the host are organized at a single vertex of many icosahedral viruses. These component structures do not share icosahedral symmetry and cannot be resolved using a conventional icosahedral averaging method. Here we report the structure(More)
A half-century after the determination of the first three-dimensional crystal structure of a protein, more than 40,000 structures ranging from single polypeptides to large assemblies have been reported. The challenge for crystallographers, however, remains the growing of a diffracting crystal. Here we report the 4.5-A resolution structure of a 22-MDa(More)
Several factors, including spatial and temporal coherence of the electron microscope, specimen movement, recording medium, and scanner optics, contribute to the decay of the measured Fourier amplitude in electron image intensities. We approximate the combination of these factors as a single Gaussian envelope function, the width of which is described by a(More)