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OBJECTIVES To examine the socio-demographic and behavioral factors predictive of women's disclosure of an HIV-positive test result in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. DESIGN From April 1995 to May 2000, 1078 HIV-positive pregnant women participated in an ongoing randomized trial on micronutrients and HIV-1 vertical transmission and progression. Disclosure to a(More)
OBJECTIVE To validate the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 (HSCL-25) for use as a depression screen amongst human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) positive pregnant women. METHOD Amongst 903 (mean age 24.8 years) HIV-positive pregnant women, a two-phased design included measures for health-related quality of life, perceived social support, and the HSCL-25 screen(More)
The effect of depression on HIV disease progression was examined among 996 HIV-positive Tanzanian women participating in a trial on micronutrients and pregnancy outcomes, vertical transmission, and disease progression. Depression and social support were measured 2 months after HIV screening and every 6 to 12 months thereafter. Depression measures from(More)
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to identify risk factors for anemia among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive pregnant women in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Baseline data from 1064 women enrolled in a clinical trial on the effect of vitamin supplementation in HIV infection were examined to identify potential determinants of anemia. The(More)
BACKGROUND Urban areas in Africa suffer a serious problem with dual burden of infectious diseases and emerging chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes which pose a serious threat to population health and health care resources. However in East Africa, there is limited literature in this research area. The objective of this study(More)
BACKGROUND Low- and middle-income countries continue to experience a large burden of stunting; 148 million children were estimated to be stunted, around 30-40% of all children in 2011. In many of these countries, foetal growth restriction (FGR) is common, as is subsequent growth faltering in the first 2 years. Although there is agreement that stunting(More)
BACKGROUND Verbal autopsy methods are critically important for evaluating the leading causes of death in populations without adequate vital registration systems. With a myriad of analytical and data collection approaches, it is essential to create a high quality validation dataset from different populations to evaluate comparative method performance and(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether genotypes from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtypes A, C, or D or intersubtype recombinants have the same probability of being transmitted from mother to child. METHODS We determined the HIV-1 genetic subtype and maternal risk factors of 51 matched transmitting and nontransmitting mothers from Tanzania. The(More)
BACKGROUND In HIV-1-infected women, poor micronutrient status has been associated with faster progression of HIV-1 disease and adverse birth outcomes. We assessed the effects of vitamin A and multivitamins on birth outcomes in such women. METHODS In Tanzania, 1075 HIV-1-infected pregnant women at between 12 and 27 weeks' gestation received placebo(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine whether vitamin A supplements result in reduced mortality among HIV-infected and uninfected children. DESIGN Randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial. METHODS Starting in April, 1993, we randomized 687 children age 6 months to 5 years who were admitted to the hospital with pneumonia. Children who were severely(More)