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OBJECTIVES The objectives of this study were to assess the general public views and familiarity toward electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) in Kuantan, Malaysia. METHODOLOGY A total of 277 Kuantan people were involved in this study. The questionnaire was distributed at random in shops, businesses, and public places in Kuantan. Statistical analysis was(More)
This survey examined current patient awareness and understanding of generic substitution. We surveyed 188 renal patients using 36 multiple-choice questions in 2 hospitals in the United Arab Emirates. We found that 70% of patients were aware of the availability of generic medicines, 60% understood the terms "generic" and "branded" in relation to medicines(More)
BACKGROUND Organophosphates (OPs) represent the most widely used class of pesticides. Although perceived as low toxicity compounds compared to the previous organochlorines, they still possess neurotoxic effects both on acute and delayed levels. Delayed neurotoxic effects of OPs include OPIDN and OPICN. The mechanisms of these delayed effects have not been(More)
BACKGROUND In humans, early ID (iron deficiency) may cause impairment of dopamine (DA) metabolism including DA clearance, transporter density, and dopamine receptor (D1 and D2) densities. PURPOSE The present study aims to examine the effects of early ID on the catecholaminergic system within certain brain areas related to attention. METHODS(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most prevalent movement disorder in the world. The major pathological hallmarks of PD are death of dopaminergic neurons and the formation of Lewy bodies. To the moment, there is no cure for PD; current treatments are symptomatic. Investigators are searching for neuroprotective agents and disease modifying strategies to slow(More)
Thyroxine (T4) enters the brain either directly across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) or indirectly via the choroid plexus (CP), which forms the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (B-CSF-B). In this study, using isolated perfused CP of the sheep by single-circulation paired tracer and steady-state techniques, T4 transport mechanisms from blood into lateral(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide. It affects the locomotor system, leading to a final severe disability through degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Despite several therapeutic approaches used, no treatment has been proven to be effective; however, cell therapy may be a promising therapeutic method. In(More)
Developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) refers to the toxic effects induced by various chemicals on brain during the early childhood period. As human brains are vulnerable during this period, various chemicals would have significant effects on brains during early childhood. Some toxicants have been confirmed to induce developmental toxic effects on CNS; however,(More)
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