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In vivo selection of phage display libraries was used to isolate peptides that home specifically to tumor blood vessels. When coupled to the anticancer drug doxorubicin, two of these peptides-one containing an alphav integrin-binding Arg-Gly-Asp motif and the other an Asn-Gly-Arg motif-enhanced the efficacy of the drug against human breast cancer xenografts(More)
Several lines of evidence suggest that tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis are dependent on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. However, the lack of inhibitors specific for the type IV collagenase/gelatinase family of MMPs has thus far prevented the selective targeting of MMP-2 (gelatinase A) and MMP-9 (gelatinase B) for therapeutic intervention(More)
It has been shown that stromal-vascular fraction isolated from adipose tissues contains an abundance of CD34+ cells. Histological analysis of adipose tissue revealed that CD34+ cells are widely distributed among adipocytes and are predominantly associated with vascular structures. The majority of CD34+ cells from freshly isolated stromal-vascular fraction(More)
Here we introduce a new approach for the screening, selection and sorting of cell-surface-binding peptides from phage libraries. Biopanning and rapid analysis of selective interactive ligands (termed BRASIL) is based on differential centrifugation in which a cell suspension incubated with phage in an aqueous upper phase is centrifuged through a non-miscible(More)
Phage that display a surface peptide with the NGR sequence motif home selectively to tumor vasculature in vivo. A drug coupled to an NGR peptide has more potent antitumor effects than the free drug [W. Arap et al., Science (Washington DC), 279: 377-380, 1998]. We show here that the receptor for the NGR peptides in tumor vasculature is aminopeptidase N (APN;(More)
We have designed short peptides composed of two functional domains, one a tumor blood vessel 'homing' motif and the other a programmed cell death-inducing sequence, and synthesized them by simple peptide chemistry. The 'homing' domain was designed to guide the peptide to targeted cells and allow its internalization. The pro-apoptotic domain was designed to(More)
The NGR peptide motif is an aminopeptidase N (CD13) ligand that targets angiogenic blood vessels. NGR-containing peptides have proven useful for delivering cytotoxic drugs, proapoptotic peptides, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF) to tumor vasculature. Given that CD13 is not only expressed in the angiogenic endothelium but also in other cell types, the(More)
Cell culture is an essential tool in drug discovery, tissue engineering and stem cell research. Conventional tissue culture produces two-dimensional cell growth with gene expression, signalling and morphology that can be different from those found in vivo, and this compromises its clinical relevance. Here, we report a three-dimensional tissue culture based(More)
PURPOSE Clinical features characteristic of small-cell prostate carcinoma (SCPC), "anaplastic," often emerge during the progression of prostate cancer. We sought to determine the efficacy of platinum-based chemotherapy in patients meeting at least one of seven prospectively defined "anaplastic" clinical criteria, including exclusive visceral or(More)
Vascular beds are known to differ in structure and metabolic function, but less is known about their molecular diversity. We have studied organ-specific molecular differences of the endothelium in various tissues by using in vivo screening of peptide libraries expressed on the surface of a bacteriophage. We report here that targeting of a large number of(More)