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BACKGROUND The relative contributions of decreases in maximal heart rate, stroke volume, and oxygen extraction and of changes in body weight and composition to the age-related decline in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) are unclear and may be influenced by sex and level of physical activity. METHODS AND RESULTS To investigate mechanisms by which aging, sex,(More)
This study was undertaken to determine whether carbohydrate feeding during exercise can delay the development of fatigue. Ten trained cyclists performed two bicycle ergometer exercise tests 1 wk apart. The initial work rate required 74 +/- 2% of maximum O2 consumption (VO2 max) (range 70-79% of VO2 max). The point of fatigue was defined as the time at which(More)
Muscle biopsies were obtained from three cyclists and four runners at the end of 10-24 mo of intensive training and after intervals of detraining up to 12 wk. Control samples came from four untrained persons and four former athletes. Macro mixed fiber samples were assayed for lactate dehydrogenase, adenylate kinase, glycogen phosphorylase, citrate synthase,(More)
The respiratory exchange ratio (RER) is lower during exercise of the same intensity in the trained compared with the untrained state, even though plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and glycerol levels are lower, suggesting reduced availability of plasma FFA. In this context, we evaluated the possibility that lipolysis of muscle triglycerides might be higher in(More)
Seven endurance exercise-trained subjects were studied 12, 21, 56, and 84 days after cessation of training. Maximal O2 uptake (VO2 max) declined 7% (P less than 0.05) during the first 21 days of inactivity and stabilized after 56 days at a level 16% (P less than 0.05) below the initial trained value. After 84 days of detraining the experimental subjects(More)
Auditory brain-stem responses (ABRs) were recorded from human subjects undergoing neurosurgical procedures which exposed the auditory nerve. Scalp recordings indicated that the latency of the negativity between waves I and II (In) and the latency of positive peak II (IIp) were shorter when the nerve was suspended in air than when the nerve was submerged in(More)
1. The effects of two inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase, NG-monomethyl L-arginine (L-NMMA) and NG-nitro L-arginine (L-NOARG), were examined on non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) inhibitory transmission in the rat anococcygeus, bovine retractor penis (BRP) and bovine penile artery. 2. In the rat anococcygeus, L-NMMA (10-1000 microM) produced a(More)
To determine the role of preload in maintaining the enhanced stroke volume of upright exercise-trained endurance athletes after deconditioning, six highly trained subjects undergoing upright and supine bicycle ergometry were characterized before and after 3, 8 and 12 weeks of inactivity that reduced oxygen uptake by 20%. During exercise, oxygen uptake,(More)
The purpose of this study was to measure, in the cat, spontaneous auditory nerve (AN) activity before and after injection with sodium salicylate. Ten cats were anesthetized, and the AN and round window (RW) were surgically exposed. Electrodes were applied to allow recording from three channels, including bipolar electrodes and monopolar electrodes located(More)
In studies of generators of auditory brainstem-evoked potentials (ABEP), depth recordings and clinical correlates may not reflect all the activity involved. Although the 'inverse problem' is mathematically ill-posed, a synthesis of physico-anatomical data with a three-channel Lissajous trajectory (3CLT) may indicate the actual number and identity of(More)