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Visceral inflammation, including that arising from bladder inflammation, reduces the threshold to sensation of innocuous or noxious stimuli applied to peripheral structures (referred hyperalgesia). Cystitis may induce transient or persistent plastic changes mediated by neurotrophins, particularly nerve growth factor (NGF), which contribute to increased(More)
The simple relation between the substrates and products of site-specific recombination raises questions about the control of directionality often observed in this class of DNA transactions. For bacteriophage lambda, viral integration and excision proceed by discrete pathways, and DNA substrates with the intrinsic property of recombining in only one(More)
During fetal prostate development, Sonic hedgehog (Shh) expression by the urogenital sinus epithelium activates Gli-1 expression in the adjacent mesenchyme and promotes outgrowth of the nascent ducts. Shh signaling is down-regulated at the conclusion of prostate ductal development. However, a survey of adult human prostate tissues reveals substantial levels(More)
OBJECTIVES Pelvic floor tension myalgia may contribute to the symptoms of male patients with chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS). Therefore, measures that diminish pelvic floor muscle spasm may improve these symptoms. Based on this hypothesis, we enrolled 19 patients with CPPS in a 12-week program of biofeedback-directed pelvic floor re-education and(More)
Inflammation of the lower urinary tract occurs frequently in people. The causes remain obscure, with the exception of urinary tract infection. Animal models have proven useful for investigating and assessing mechanisms underlying symptoms associated with lower urinary tract inflammation and options for suppressing these symptoms. This review will discuss(More)
Patients with hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), a degenerative central nervous system disorder characterized by progressive lower extremity spasticity, frequently experience symptoms of voiding dysfunction. Urodynamic evaluation of patients with HSP has not been reported, and the etiology of voiding dysfunction remains unexplained. We present our(More)
The Hedgehog (Hh) pathway contributes to prostate cancer growth and progression. The presence of robust Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) expression in both normal prostate and localized cancer challenged us to explain the unique growth-promoting effect in cancer. We show here that paracrine Hh signaling exerts a non-cell autonomous effect on xenograft tumor growth and(More)
BACKGROUND Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and components of its signalling pathway have been identified in human prostate carcinoma and increased levels of their expression appear to correlate with disease progression and metastasis. The mechanism through which Shh signalling could promote metastasis in bone, the most common site for prostate carcinoma metastasis,(More)
BACKGROUND Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is a conserved morphogenetic pathway which plays critical roles in embryonic development, with emerging evidence also supporting a role in healing and repair processes and tumorigenesis. The Gli family of transcription factors (Gli1, 2 and 3) mediate the Hedgehog morphogenetic signal by regulating the expression of(More)
Inflammation of the prostate is strongly correlated with development of lower urinary tract symptoms and several studies have implicated prostatic fibrosis in the pathogenesis of bladder outlet obstruction. It has been postulated that inflammation induces prostatic fibrosis but this relationship has never been tested. Here, we characterized the fibrotic(More)