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The normal human microflora is a complex ecosystem that is in part dependent on enteric nutrients for establishing colonization. The gut microbiota are important to the host with regard to metabolic functions and resistance to bacterial infections. At birth, bacterial colonization of a previously germ-free human gut begins. Diet and environmental conditions(More)
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common severe neonatal gastrointestinal emergency that predominantly affects premature infants. Its morbidity and mortality is similar to other severe childhood diseases such as meningitis and leukemia, and is becoming increasingly recognized as a major cause of neurodevelopmental delays. The etiology of NEC(More)
Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major cause of morbidity in preterm infants. We hypothesize that the intestinal injury in this disease is a consequence of synergy among three of the major risk factors for NEC: prematurity, enteral feeding, and bacterial colonization. Together these factors result in an exaggerated inflammatory response,(More)
The neonatal adaptive immune system, relatively naïve to foreign antigens, requires synergy with the innate immune system to protect the intestine. Goblet cells provide mucins, Paneth cells produce antimicrobial peptides, and dendritic cells (DCs) present luminal antigens. Intracellular signaling by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) elicits chemokines and(More)
The intestinal epithelium is an active participant in the mucosal immune response against luminal pathogens. Microorganisms and their cell wall products, i.e. lipopolysaccharide (LPS), can stimulate the enterocyte to produce an innate immune response with the increased production of IL-8 via an activation of the transcription factor NFkappaB. The innate(More)
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a significant neonatal public health problem that affects low-birth weight infants in neonatal intensive care units throughout the country. As the survival rate of low-birth weight infants continues to increase and as the number of low-birth weight births remains unchanged, we can anticipate that NEC will continue to be a(More)
From 1970 to 1976 a total of 91 cetaceans was examined for parasites and associated pathology. Sixty of the animals were found stranded along a 100-mile section of southern California coastline while 31 were taken at sea. Parasites from 5 species of cetaceans are reported along with their possible role as a contributing factor in stranding behavior.
In this update of the role of breast milk ingestion on passive and active protection of the human neonate, new observations and studies are presented that appear to support the concept that preterm and term infants should receive their mother's milk so far as possible. New objective evidence has been presented to support the role of breast milk in the(More)
The uptake and transport of nucleosides (adenosine, cytidine, guanosine, thymidine, uridine and inosine) were examined in intestinal cell lines (Caco-2 and IEC-6). Well-differentiated Caco-2 cells took up significantly more uridine and thymidine than less-differentiated cells over 24 h. These differences were reflected in the resulting trichloroacetic(More)