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Galanin is a 29-aa neuropeptide with a complex role in pain processing. Several galanin receptor subtypes are present in dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord with a differential distribution. Here, we describe a generation of a specific galanin R2 (GalR2) agonist, AR-M1896, and its application in studies of a rat neuropathic pain model (Bennett). The results(More)
Galanin exerts an inhibitory effect on locus coeruleus (LC) neurons via a postsynaptic, as yet unidentified galanin receptor. Using an in vitro intracellular recording technique the effect of two galanin receptor agonists on LC neurons was investigated. Bath application of [Sar(1), D-Ala(12)]gal(1-16)-NH(2) (AR-M961), an agonist both at galanin R1 and R2(More)
In the present article, we summarize the preclinical pharmacology of 4-{(R)-(3-aminophenyl)[4-(4-fluorobenzyl)-piperazin-1-yl]methyl}-N,N-diethylbenzamide (AZD2327), a highly potent and selective agonist of the δ-opioid receptor. AZD2327 binds with sub-nanomolar affinity to the human opioid receptor (K(i) = 0.49 and 0.75 nM at the C27 and F27 isoforms,(More)
Hedgehog (Hh) signalling plays a central role in many developmental processes in both vertebrates and invertebrates [1]. The multipass membrane-spanning proteins Patched (Ptc) [2-4] and Smoothened (Smo) [5-7] have been proposed to act as subunits of a putative Hh receptor complex. According to this view, Smo functions as the transducing subunit, the(More)
Three new monoclonal antibodies are shown by immunocytochemical techniques to recognise the adult fast, slow and neonatal myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms in adult and fetal human muscle. In fetal muscle of 17-20 weeks of gestation, slow MHC was present only in primary myotubes. Secondary myotubes contained neonatal MHC with different levels of fast and(More)
During neoplastic growth and metastasis, the immune system responds to the tumor by developing both cellular and humoral immune responses. In spite of this active response, tumor cells escape immune surveillance. We previously showed that FasL expression by breast tumor plays a central role in the induction of apoptosis of infiltrating Fas-immune cells(More)
Erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) has been reported to be overexpressed in tumours and has raised safety concerns regarding the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) to treat anaemia in cancer patients. To investigate the potential for EpoR to be overexpressed in tumours, we have evaluated human tumours for amplification of the EPOR locus, levels of(More)
Spontaneous activity on the EMG examination is traditionally ascribed to disease of the lower motor neuron when present in muscles well below the level of para- or quadriplegia despite the absence of any detectable peripheral nerve injury. It is uncertain whether it reflects transient paralysis of transmission (related to clinical spinal shock) or(More)
The compositional relationship between the cell surface of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and the membranes of PMN cytoplasmic granules has been investigated. Heterophilic PMNs obtained from peritoneal exudates contained 13 cell surface polypeptides ranging in molecular weight from 220,000 to 12,000 daltons as determined by(More)
We have identified a novel subtype of galanin receptor (GALR-2) in rat dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord. The open reading frame of GALR-2 is 1116 nucleotides long, encoding a protein of 372 amino acids with a theoretical molecular mass of 40.7 kD. Membranes prepared from stable pools of 293 cells expressing GALR-2, but not wild-type 293 cells,(More)