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OBJECTIVE To define the mechanism of action of glatiramer acetate (GA; formerly known as copolymer-1) as an immunomodulatory treatment for MS. BACKGROUND The proposed mechanisms of action of GA include 1) functional inhibition of myelin-reactive T cells by human leukocyte antigen (HLA) blocking, 2) T-cell receptor (TCR) antagonism, and 3) induction of T(More)
An increase in the morbidity of upper respiratory tract infections and the attack and exacerbation of autoim-mune diseases has been observed to occur in the few days following sudden environmental temperature decreases, but the mechanisms for these phenomena are not well understood. To determine the effect of a sudden ambient temperature drop on the levels(More)
Rhizoma Dioscoreae polysaccharides (RDPS) are the primary active ingredient of Rhizoma Dioscoreae, which is a traditional Chinese medicine. RDPS have previously been shown to scavenge reactive oxygen species, and protect against D-galactose-induced mimetic aging. The present study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of RDPS against(More)
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