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Interleukin-4 is a multifunctional cytokine that plays a critical role in the regulation of immune responses. Its effects depend upon binding to and signaling through a receptor complex consisting of the IL-4R alpha chain and the common gamma chain (gamma c), resulting in a series of phosphorylation events mediated by receptor-associated kinases. In turn,(More)
Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) and B cell stimulatory factor-1 (BSF-1), also known as interleukin-4, are T cell-derived lymphokines that have potent effects on B cell proliferation and differentiation. They are often secreted by distinct T cell clones. It is now shown that IFN-gamma stimulates the expression of immunoglobulin (Ig) of the IgG2a isotype and(More)
Using a mouse model in which tumors show a growth-regression-recurrence pattern, we investigated the mechanisms for down-regulation of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated tumor immunosurveillance. We found that interleukin 4 receptor (IL-4R) knockout and downstream signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) knockout, but not IL-4 knockout, mice(More)
IL-18 is a proinflammatory cytokine that plays an important role in natural killer cell activation and T helper 1 (Th1) cell responses. Mast cells and basophils are major inducers and effectors of allergic inflammation. Here we show that basophils and mast cells derived by culture of bone marrow cells with IL-3 for 10 days express IL-18Ralpha chain and that(More)
IL-4 plays a critical role in the differentiation of TCR-stimulated naive CD4 T cells to the Th2 phenotype. In response to IL-4, the IL-4R activates a set of phosphotyrosine binding domain-containing proteins, including insulin receptor substrate 1/2, Shc, and IL-4R interacting protein, as well as Stat6. Stat6 has been shown to be required for Th2(More)
Several specific conclusions can be drawn from these studies: 1. IL-4 is required for the generation of both primary polyclonal and secondary antigen-specific IgE responses in vivo. 2. IL-4 is required to maintain established, ongoing, antigen-specific and polyclonal IgE responses. 3. Most, but not all, polyclonal IgE production during a secondary immune(More)
Differentiation of naive CD4(+) T cells into IFN-gamma-producing T helper 1 (T(H)1) cells is pivotal for protective immune responses against intracellular pathogens. T-bet, a recently discovered member of the T-box transcription factor family, has been reported to play a critical role in this process, promoting IFN-gamma production. Although terminal T(H)1(More)
Naive CD4+ T cells produce interleukin 2 (IL-2) but little IL-4 or interferon gamma (IFN-gamma). In vitro, they develop into IL-4 or IFN-gamma producers depending on the conditions of the priming culture. Using T-cell receptor transgenic CD4+ T cells, the role of IL-12 and IL-4 in antigen-specific priming was examined. IL-12 substantially enhanced the(More)
Parasitic helminths typically induce components of immediate-type hypersensitivity, including elevated serum IgE, eosinophilia, and mucosal mast cells. These responses are T-cell-dependent and associated with rapid expulsion of parasitic worms from a sensitized host; existing experimental systems have failed to define the precise role of cytokines in these(More)