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X-ray crystallographic methods and electron microscope image analysis have been used to correlate the structure and the chemical composition of gap junction plaques isolated intact from mouse liver. The requirement that the interpretations of X-ray, electron microscope, and chemical measurements be consistent reduces the uncertainties inherent in the(More)
Correlation of structural changes in isolated gap junctions with the mechanism of channel gating is complicated by the effects of isolation procedures and the lack of a direct functional assay. The effect of variations in the isolation procedure are examined by comparison of the structures of gap junctions isolated by different protocols. X-ray diffraction(More)
Models for the spatial distribution of protein, lipid and water in gap junction structures have been constructed from the results of the analysis of X-ray diffraction data described here and the electron microscope and chemical data presented in the preceding paper (Caspar, D. L. D., D. A. Goodenough, L. Makowski, and W.C. Phillips. 1977. 74:605-628). The(More)
Models for the spatial distribution of protein, lipid and water in gap junction structures have been constructed from the results of the analysis of X-ray diffrac-tion data described here and the electron microscope and chemical data presented in the preceding paper The continuous intensity distribution on the meridian of the X-ray diffraction pattern was(More)
This paper is concerned with the evaluation of two Lagrangian measures which arise in oscillatory or fluctuating shear flows when the fluctuating field is rotational and the spectrum of wave numbers which comprise it is continuous. The measures are the drift and pseudomomentum. Phillips [J. Fluid Mech. 430, 209 (2001)] has shown that the measures are, in(More)
A comprehensive description of an alignment procedure for double-mirror (Franks) cameras is presented.* It is intended to serve as a practical laboratory guide. The method is summarized in a flow chart and illustrated by beam photographs and intensity profiles. Principals underlying the method are explained. Detailed procedures are given for the initial(More)
X-ray diffraction shows that complete virus particles and empty capsids crystallize isomorphously. The surface morphology of the protein coat, as revealed by electron microscopy, is the dominant structural feature determining the intensity of x-ray reflections to a resolution of approximately 30 angstroms. The structure and variability of the viral(More)
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