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Human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA).
TLDR
The reported levels of BPA in human fluids are higher than the BPA concentrations reported to stimulate molecular endpoints in vitro and appear to be within an order of magnitude of the levels needed to induce effects in animal models. Expand
Hormones and endocrine-disrupting chemicals: low-dose effects and nonmonotonic dose responses.
TLDR
It is concluded that when nonmonotonic dose-response curves occur, the effects of low doses cannot be predicted by the effects observed at high doses, and fundamental changes in chemical testing and safety determination are needed to protect human health. Expand
Large effects from small exposures. III. Endocrine mechanisms mediating effects of bisphenol A at levels of human exposure.
TLDR
Concern with human exposure to BPA derives from identification of molecular mechanisms mediating effects in human and animal tissues at very low doses, in vivo effects in experimental animals caused by low doses within the range of human exposure, and widespread human Exposure to levels of BPA that cause adverse effects in animals. Expand
Large effects from small exposures. I. Mechanisms for endocrine-disrupting chemicals with estrogenic activity.
TLDR
Four fundamental issues are problematic for risk assessment methods used by regulatory agencies, because they challenge the traditional use of extrapolation from high-dose testing to predict responses at the much lower environmentally relevant doses. Expand
Relative binding affinity-serum modified access (RBA-SMA) assay predicts the relative in vivo bioactivity of the xenoestrogens bisphenol A and octylphenol.
TLDR
It is shown for the first time that fetal exposure to environmentally relevant parts-per-billion doses of bisphenol A, in the range currently being consumed by people, can alter the adult reproductive system in mice. Expand
Concerns over use of glyphosate-based herbicides and risks associated with exposures: a consensus statement
TLDR
GBHs are the most heavily applied herbicide in the world and usage continues to rise; Worldwide, GBHs often contaminate drinking water sources, precipitation, and air, especially in agricultural regions and regulatory estimates of tolerable daily intakes for glyphosate in the United States and European Union are based on outdated science. Expand
Similarity of Bisphenol A Pharmacokinetics in Rhesus Monkeys and Mice: Relevance for Human Exposure
TLDR
The average 24-hr unconjugated serum BPA concentration of 0.5 ng/mL in both monkeys and mice after a 400 μg/kg oral dose suggests that total daily human exposure to BPA is via multiple routes and is much higher than previously assumed. Expand
A Physiologically Based Approach To the Study of Bisphenol a and Other Estrogenic Chemicals On the Size of Reproductive Organs, Daily Sperm Production, and Behavior
TLDR
Two chemicals previously shown to have estrogenic activity, bisphenol A and octylphenol, were examined for their effects on accessory reproductive organs and daily sperm production in male offspring of mice fed these chemicals during pregnancy and it was found that the 2 ng/g dose permanently increased the size of the preputial glands, but reduced thesize of the epididymides. Expand
Prostate enlargement in mice due to fetal exposure to low doses of estradiol or diethylstilbestrol and opposite effects at high doses.
TLDR
It is suggested that a small increase in estrogen may modulate the action of androgen in regulating prostate differentiation, resulting in a permanent increase in prostatic androgen receptors and prostate size. Expand
Re-expression of estrogen receptor alpha in estrogen receptor alpha-negative MCF-7 cells restores both estrogen and insulin-like growth factor-mediated signaling and growth.
TLDR
Data show that ERalpha is a critical requirement for IGF signaling, and to the knowledge this is the first report of functional ERalpha expression that confers estrogen-mediated growth of an ER-negative breast cancer cell line. Expand
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