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Glutamate-Dependent Neuroglial Calcium Signaling Differs Between Young and Adult Brain
TLDR
It is found that astrocytic expression of mGluR5 is developmentally regulated and is undetectable after postnatal week 3, and neuroglial signaling in the adult brain may occur in a manner fundamentally distinct from that exhibited during development. Expand
The microbiome and butyrate regulate energy metabolism and autophagy in the mammalian colon.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that microbiota have a strong effect on energy homeostasis in the colon compared to other tissues and this tissue specificity is due to colonocytes utilizing bacterially produced butyrate as their primary energy source. Expand
SOX9 Is an Astrocyte-Specific Nuclear Marker in the Adult Brain Outside the Neurogenic Regions
TLDR
It is shown here that SOX9 is an astrocyte-specific nuclear marker in all major areas of the CNS outside of the neurogenic regions, and it is document that astroCytes constitute a smaller fraction of total cell number than previously estimated in the normal adult mouse brain. Expand
Role of IFN-gamma in induction of Foxp3 and conversion of CD4+ CD25- T cells to CD4+ Tregs.
TLDR
Mouse CD4+ CD25- T cells, when treated in vitro with IFN-gamma, acquired marked regulatory properties as evidenced by suppression of EAE by adoptive transfer, which have important implications for the understanding of the complex role of IFN -gamma in both induction and self regulation of inflammatory processes. Expand
Incidence and Prognostic Impact of FoxP3+ Regulatory T Cells in Human Gliomas
TLDR
Tregs seemed to have the highest predilection for tumors of the astrocytic lineage and specifically in the high-grade gliomas, such as GBM, and the presence of Tregs in GBMs seemed to be prognostically neutral. Expand
CART: an Hrs/actinin-4/BERP/myosin V protein complex required for efficient receptor recycling.
TLDR
It is reported that the endosome-associated protein hrs is a subunit of a protein complex containing actinin-4, BERP, and myosin V that is necessary for efficient TfR recycling but not for EGFR degradation. Expand
Hrs regulates early endosome fusion by inhibiting formation of an endosomal SNARE complex
TLDR
It is found that the endosome-associated hepatocyte responsive serum phosphoprotein (Hrs) inhibited the homotypic fusion of early endosomes, and that SNAP-25 is a receptor for Hrs on early endOSomal membranes and that the binding of Hrs to SNAP- 25 on endosomal membranes inhibits formation of a SNARE complex required for homotypesome fusion. Expand
Direct neuronal glucose uptake heralds activity-dependent increases in cerebral metabolism
TLDR
It is shown, using 2-photon imaging of a near-infrared 2-deoxyglucose analogue (2DG-IR), that glucose is taken up preferentially by neurons in awake behaving mice, and the neuron is identified as the principal locus of glucose uptake as visualized by functional brain imaging. Expand
Flow Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in Vascular Endothelium Leads to Krüppel-Like Factor 2 Expression
TLDR
The flow-mediated AMPK activation is a newly defined KLF2 regulatory pathway in vascular endothelium that acts via ERK5/MEF2 and was significantly reduced in the aorta of AMPKα2 knockout mice. Expand
Neuronal Transgene Expression in Dominant-Negative SNARE Mice
TLDR
It is demonstrated that the activity of cortical neurons is reversibly suppressed in dnSNARE mice and thus question critical evidence that astrocytes contribute to neurotransmission through SNARE-dependent vesicular release of gliotransmitters. Expand
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