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Cutting Edge: Neutrophil Granulocyte Serves as a Vector for Leishmania Entry into Macrophages1
Macrophages (MF) are the final host cells for multiplication of the intracellular parasite Leishmania major (L. major). However, polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes (PMN), not MF, are the firstExpand
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Leishmania disease development depends on the presence of apoptotic promastigotes in the virulent inoculum
The obligate intracellular pathogen Leishmania major survives and multiplies in professional phagocytes. The evasion strategy to circumvent killing by host phagocytes and establish a productiveExpand
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IL-4-deficient Balb/c mice resist infection with Leishmania major
Mice with a genetically engineered deficiency for either IL-4 or IFN- gamma R1 (single mutants), and IL-4/IFN-gamma R1 (double mutants) on the Balb/c and 129Sv background were used to study theExpand
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Invasion, control and persistence of Leishmania parasites.
Significant advances in research on the immunopathogenesis of leishmaniasis include the discovery of novel putative evasion and survival strategies of Leishmania parasites, a more detailedExpand
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Neutrophil granulocytes as host cells and transport vehicles for intracellular pathogens: apoptosis as infection-promoting factor.
Polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes (PMN) are primary antimicrobial effector cells of the innate immune system and serve to destroy invading pathogens. Although most ingested microorganisms areExpand
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Early parasite containment is decisive for resistance to Leishmania major infection
We investigated the early spread of Leishmania major in various mouse strains. In BALB/c mice, which are extremely vulnerable to L. major infection, the parasites disseminated within 10‐24 h from theExpand
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Phagocytes transmit Chlamydia pneumoniae from the lungs to the vasculature For editorial comments see page 499.
Chlamydia pneumoniae, a major cause of community-acquired pneumonia, primarily infects the respiratory tract. Chronic infection of nonrespiratory sites, such as the vascular wall, the brain or bloodExpand
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Sleep, Immunity, and Circadian Clocks: A Mechanistic Model
The lack of sufficient amounts of sleep is a hallmark of modern living, and it is commonly perceived that in the long run this makes us sick. An increasing amount of scientific data indicate thatExpand
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First-Choice Antibiotics at Subinhibitory Concentrations Induce Persistence of Chlamydia pneumoniae
ABSTRACT Persistent growth forms of Chlamydia pneumoniae have been associated with chronic infections in vivo. We investigated the effects of first-line therapeutics on the induction of persistenceExpand
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Neutrophil granulocytes--Trojan horses for Leishmania major and other intracellular microbes?
Polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes (PMNs) possess numerous effector mechanisms to kill ingested pathogens as the first line of defence. However, several microorganisms evade intracellularExpand
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