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Detailed Balance Limit of Efficiency of p‐n Junction Solar Cells
In order to find an upper theoretical limit for the efficiency of p‐n junction solar energy converters, a limiting efficiency, called the detailed balance limit of efficiency, has been calculated for
Statistics of the Recombinations of Holes and Electrons
The statistics of the recombination of holes and electrons in semiconductors is analyzed on the basis of a model in which the recombination occurs through the mechanism of trapping. A trap is assumed
Carrier Generation and Recombination in P-N Junctions and P-N Junction Characteristics
For certain p-n junctions, it has been observed that the measured current-voltage characteristics deviate from the ideal case of the diffusion model. It is the purpose of this paper to show that the
Dislocation Models of Crystal Grain Boundaries
The energies and motions of grain boundaries between two crystallites are investigated theoretically using the dislocation model of grain boundaries. Quantitative predictions made for simple
The theory of p-n junctions in semiconductors and p-n junction transistors
The theory of potential distribution and rectification for p-n junctions is developed with emphasis on germanium, resulting in an admittance for a simple case varying as (1 + iωτ p )1/2 where τ p is the lifetime of a hole in the n-region.
Deformation Potentials and Mobilities in Non-Polar Crystals
The method of effective mass, extended to apply to gradual shifts in energy bands resulting from deformations of the crystal lattice, is used to estimate the interaction between electrons of thermal
A Unipolar "Field-Effect" Transistor
  • W. Shockley
  • Physics
    Proceedings of the IRE
  • 1 November 1952
The theory for a new form of transistor is presented. This transistor is of the "field-effect" type in which the conductivity of a layer of semiconductor is modulated by a transverse electric field.