Nitric oxide synthases: regulation and function.
Nitric oxide (NO), the smallest signalling molecule known, is produced by three isoforms of NO synthase (NOS), which can be expressed in many cell types in response to lipopolysaccharide, cytokines, or other agents.
Regulation of endothelium-derived nitric oxide production by the protein kinase Akt
It is shown that the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt (protein kinase B) can directly phosphorylate eNOS on serine 1179 and activate the enzyme, leading to NO production, whereas mutant eN OS (S1179A) is resistant to phosphorylation and activation by Akt.
Evolving functions of endothelial cells in inflammation
This Review describes the functions performed by endothelial cells at each stage of the inflammatory process, emphasizing the principal mediators and signalling pathways involved and the therapeutic implications.
The HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor simvastatin activates the protein kinase Akt and promotes angiogenesis in normocholesterolemic animals.
Simvastatin enhanced phosphorylation of the endogenous Akt substrate endothelial nitric oxide synthase, inhibited apoptosis and accelerated vascular structure formation in vitro in an Akt-dependent manner, and promoted angiogenesis in ischemic limbs of normocholesterolemic rabbits.
Caveolins, Liquid-Ordered Domains, and Signal Transduction
This review seeks to update the working definition of caveolae, describe the functional roles of the caveolin gene family, and summarize the evidence that supports a role for Caveolae as mediators of a number of cellular signaling processes.
Dynamic activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase by Hsp90
Inhibition of signalling through Hsp90 attenuates both agonist-stimulated production of nitric oxide and endothelium-dependent relaxation of isolated blood vessels and indicates that in addition to its role as a molecular chaperone involved in protein folding and maturation, HSp90 may also be recruited to cellular targets depending on the activation state of the cell.
The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 controls folding and stability of Akt and protein kinase C
It is demonstrated that mTOR, SIN1 and rictor, components of mammalian (m)TORC2, are required for phosphorylation of Akt and conventional protein kinase C (PKC) at the turn motif (TM) site, and a novel function of the TOR pathway is uncovered in regulating protein folding and stability.
Biological action of leptin as an angiogenic factor.
It is shown that OB-Rb is also expressed in human vasculature and in primary cultures of human endothelial cells, indicating that the vascular endothelium is a target for leptin and suggesting a physiological mechanism whereby leptin-induced angiogenesis may facilitate increased energy expenditure.
Nitric oxide production contributes to the angiogenic properties of vascular endothelial growth factor in human endothelial cells.
- A. Papapetropoulos, G. Garcı́a-Cardeña, J. Madri, W. Sessa
- BiologyJournal of Clinical Investigation
- 15 December 1997
Both short- and long-term exposure of human EC to VEGF stimulates the release of biologically active NO, suggesting that NO mediates aspects of V EGF signaling required for EC proliferation and organization in vitro.
eNOS at a glance
- W. Sessa
- BiologyJournal of Cell Science
- 15 May 2004
ENOS or NOS3)-derived NO is an endogenous vasodilatory gas that continually regulates the diameter of blood vessels and maintains an anti-proliferative and anti-apoptotic stance.