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In 1924 the Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose sent Einstein a paper in which he derived the Planck law for black-body radiation by treating the photons as a gas of identical particles. Einstein…
Bose-Einstein Condensation in a Gas of Sodium Atoms
- K. B. Davis, M. Mewes, W. Ketterle
- PhysicsEQEC'96. European Quantum Electronic Conference
- 27 November 1995
The striking signature of Bose condensation was the sudden appearance of a bimodal velocity distribution below the critical temperature of ~2µK.
Making, probing and understanding Bose-Einstein condensates
Contribution to the proceedings of the 1998 Enrico Fermi summer school on Bose-Einstein condensation in Varenna, Italy.
Observation of Interference Between Two Bose Condensates
- M. R. Andrews, C. Townsend, H. Miesner, D. Durfee, D. M. Kurn, W. Ketterle
- 31 January 1997
It is demonstrated that Bose condensed atoms are “laser-like”; that is, they are coherent and show long-range correlations and have direct implications for the atom laser and the Josephson effect for atoms.
Observation of Vortex Lattices in Bose-Einstein Condensates
The observation of dislocations, irregular structure, and dynamics indicates that gaseous Bose-Einstein condensates may be a model system for the study of vortex matter.
Observation of Feshbach resonances in a Bose–Einstein condensate
- S. Inouye, M. R. Andrews, J. Stenger, H. Miesner, D. Stamper-Kurn, W. Ketterle
- 12 March 1998
It has long been predicted that the scattering of ultracold atoms can be altered significantly through a so-called ‘Feshbach resonance’. Two such resonances have now been observed in optically…
Realizing the Harper Hamiltonian with laser-assisted tunneling in optical lattices.
- H. Miyake, G. Siviloglou, C. Kennedy, W. Burton, W. Ketterle
- PhysicsPhysical review letters
- 6 August 2013
The Harper Hamiltonian for neutral particles in optical lattices is implemented using laser-assisted tunneling and a potential energy gradient provided by gravity or magnetic field gradients to describe the motion of charged particles in strong magnetic fields.
Realization of Bose-Einstein condensates in lower dimensions.
The crossover into two-dimensional and one-dimensional condensates was observed by a change in aspect ratio and by the release energy converging to a nonzero value when the number of trapped atoms was reduced.
Vortices and superfluidity in a strongly interacting Fermi gas
Observation of vortex lattices in a strongly interacting, rotating Fermi gas that provide definitive evidence for superfluidity are reported and the crossover from a Bose–Einstein condensate of molecules to a Bardeen–Cooper–Schrieffer superfluid of loosely bound pairs is explored.