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Early evolution of the venom system in lizards and snakes
Demonstration that the snakes, iguanians and anguimorphs form a single clade provides overwhelming support for a single, early origin of the venom system in lizards and snakes.
Pharmacology and biochemistry of spider venoms.
  • L. Rash, W. Hodgson
  • Biology, Chemistry
    Toxicon : official journal of the International…
  • 1 March 2002
The pharmacological activity of fish venoms.
Isolation of a Neurotoxin (α-colubritoxin) from a Nonvenomous Colubrid: Evidence for Early Origin of Venom in Snakes
The first complete amino acid sequence of a colubrid toxin is provided, which is called α-colubritoxin, isolated from the Asian ratsnake Coelognathusradiatus, an archetypal nonvenomous snake as sold in pet stores, to support the role of venom as a key evolutionary innovation in the early diversification of advanced snakes and provide evidence that forces a fundamental rethink of the very concept of nonvenoms.
Chironex fleckeri (Box Jellyfish) Venom Proteins
Characterization of two C. fleckeri venom proteins suggests that the toxins have a similar pore-forming mechanism of action involving α-helices of the N-terminal domain, whereas structural diversification among toxin members may modulate target specificity.
Novel venom proteins produced by differential domain-expression strategies in beaded lizards and gila monsters (genus Heloderma).
The origin and evolution of venom proteins in helodermatid lizards were investigated by multidisciplinary techniques andBioactivity characterization of exendin and helokinestatin elucidated variable cardioactivity between isoforms within each class.
Ohanin, a Novel Protein from King Cobra Venom, Induces Hypolocomotion and Hyperalgesia in Mice*
The ability of the protein to elicit a response at greatly reduced doses when injected intracerebroventricularly as compared with intraperitoneal administration in both the locomotion and hot plate experiments strongly suggests that ohanin acts on the central nervous system.
Functional and Structural Diversification of the Anguimorpha Lizard Venom System*
The results obtained highlight the importance of utilizing evolution-based search strategies for biodiscovery and emphasize the largely untapped drug design and development potential of lizard venoms.
A central role for venom in predation by Varanus komodoensis (Komodo Dragon) and the extinct giant Varanus (Megalania) priscus
  • B. Fry, S. Wroe, J. Norman
  • Environmental Science
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • 2 June 2009
It is demonstrated that the effects of deep wounds inflicted are potentiated through venom with toxic activities including anticoagulation and shock induction, and the lightweight skull is relatively poorly adapted to generate high bite forces but better adapted to resist high pulling loads.
In vitro neuromuscular activity of snake venoms
1. Snake venoms consist of a multitude of pharmacologically active components used for the capture of prey. Neurotoxins are particularly important in this regard, producing paralysis of skeletal